KASHMIR: The Accession to India - A Fraud
Brigadier (R) M. Shafi Khan
The study contains concentrated facts in support of title of the Book. It was necessitated by the phenomenon which dominated the behaviour of caste ridden Hindus and their leaders towards Muslims in Pakistan as well as theirs own in India. On the eve of the partition Mr. Churchil had warned Lord Mountbatten that handing over the government to caste – Hindus was going to be a complete disaster; he knew the Hindus well. The germs of bigotry, prejudices and an allergy against Muslims, led to the partition itself.
Not that the projection of truth will help change the hostile attitude, tendencies and behaviour pattern of Hindus towards Muslims but the awareness may take us out of stuper of complacency. The repeated failures of the leaders dispirited the people in general – the national spirit and pride has nearly nose-dived. The leaders could not make the service to the country as labour of love. Our story kept on repeating itself – every failure meant back to square one, that also was misunderstood because the enemy march forward created the real difference in many fields and aspects of life. Neither the enemy nay enemies, relaxed in hurting us nor we enjoyed the bliss of Freedom; the most invaluable gift of God.
In fifty years we have not learnt to solve our problems. We also have not learnt the methods and techniques in dealing with the enemy/enemies. The leaders in almost all the fields proved to be our black hole. This study may help us open our eyes to know our own values and the position on ground. The enemy could serve as a teacher if we have the will to learn.
Kashmir: The Whole Truth
The case study reveals that Kashmir problem is a created tragedy, which placed one fifth of humanity on tenterhooks for over fifty years. The insecurity and the most miserable atmosphere imposed on the people due to ever-present military confrontation and arms-race between India and Pakistan have caused serious sufferings to the people of this region. The issue is clear: Hindu India occupied the Muslim majority state through a fraud and kept it by force. The correct perspective had received UN recognition followed by UN Resolutions to hold plebiscite but it is being fogged now. The violation of commitment by India is being shielded. The issue embraces problems of human rights, political rights, the rights of self-determination and now the survival of the population itself which is being butchered day and night in a cordoned area: their hearths and homes are being destroyed without any rescue efforts from any side. The heaven on earth has been turned into a hell by the occupation forces of India. Even Red Cross could not enter to show its presence nor it could provide any relief whatsoever. It smells like a conspiracy at international level.
BACKGROUND – IN BRIEF
During the World War II Britain had fallen on rock of poverty. It wished “to seek freedom from its Indian Empire which had turned from a valuable asset to a frightening burden. A plan was evolved for rapid withdrawal under guise of delivering liberty to India.” (Patrick French – Liberty or Death). For brevity, only the most vital points will be discussed. There were three parties involved in the issue of Independence of India:
- The British – the rulers.
- The Hindu – a brute majority of 300 millions.
- The Muslims – big minority of 100 million.
The allergy of Hindus towards Muslims caused their permanent separation.
A man with a Mandate
Lord Mountbatten a serving Admiral and Supreme Commander South East Asia had invited (March 1946) Pandit Nehru to Singapore for a grand ceremonial treatment. This grand gesture to a Congress leader who was the leading personality of Indian Freedom Movement against British Raj was out of tune and decorum of those days. He and his wife became great friends of Nehru. Just a year after the reception he had arranged for Nehru at Singapore. Mountbatten took over as Viceroy and Governor General of India in March 1947. He was to serve as a lubricant of imperial withdrawal.
The British and Hindus Join Heads and hands Against Muslim
- Mountbatten pushed Lord Wavell out unceremoniously. He took over on 22 March 1947 with a special mandate was vested with almost unlimited authority regarding the transfer of power to Indians. He advanced the date of transfer of power from June 1948 to 15 August 1947.
- The cabinet mission was the last part of dialogues. The last chance of deal between parties through dialogue was sabotaged: Mountbatten had established contact with Nehru (discussed earlier). The Trio – (Mountbatten, Edwina and Nehru) played the most consequential part than the dialogues spread over years…1942 onwards.3
- The political movement for Pakistan (1940-1947) became too popular too powerful to be ignored. Ultimately Pakistan had to be conceded. The new born state was thrown into a storm with no chances of survival – this was the best way of destroying for ever the political movement which had sought a separate homeland for Muslims.
Mountbatten announced the partition plan on 3 June 1947, partitioning provinces of Bengal, Punjab and in the Punjab a corridor from Muslim majority area was given to India to provide her a direct link with Kashmir. The work on a new road to Kashmir was undertaken at top speed – it was a top-secret project. While still a common Governor General he hurried off to Kashmir (20-24 June 1947) to pressurise the Maharaja not to declare accession before 15 August 1947 – the date of transfer of power to India. The princely states had to accede to one of the two dominions or stay independent beyond that date at their own risk. He tried to get Sheikh Abdullah the so-called voice of the people of Kashmir released from jail for the benefit of India – he succeeded in this venture towards the end of September 1947 before the drama of accession was staged in the fourth week of October 1947.
When the partition plan was announced on 3 June, Pakistan and India had sixty-nine days to be settled in their own dominions, before 15 August. India was already an established state in fully functional form but Pakistan had to start afresh: there were no secretariats, offices, neither tables, papers, nor even the paper pins. The abrupt separation of the two communities led to widespread communal killings. Over the ten million people migrate, more than 7 million were butchered during cross border exodus. Pakistan was flooded by refugees. It had no kitty whatsoever and India refused, by nasty design, to pay Rs. 550 million – the share of assets. The army was not on ground – as part of it was still serving in South East Asia. The nakedness of resources was visible and enormous difficulties were too ominous to be wished away. For friends and foes the survival of Pakistan looked impossible.
Lord Mountbatten the Governor General wished to be the common Governor General of both Pakistan and India. When he was informed by Mr. Jinnah (19 July 1947) that he was not acceptable to Pakistan as a common Governor General, he rushed into his room at the Viceregal Lodge. The dialogue between the viceroy and the giant is a classic by itself-a-rare piece for history and historians:
Mountbatten: Do you realize what it will cost you?
Jinnah: May be few crore rupees in assets.
Mountbatten: No, it may cost you all the assets and Pakistan.
Mountbatten could not keep his intention secret. Luckily he was not given the chance to do what he wanted to do….he performed as vanguard for Hindu India before and after the partition. That fact should put at rest the wish of those who spoke in favour of common governor General even after the partition. We had/have men among us who favoured the lordship of the Mountbatten over Pakistan also.
His manner of performance had lost grace and dignity of his office. Patel the strongman of Congress judged him thus: “Mountbatten became a “toy” for Jawahar Lal Nehru to play with while we arranged revolution” 2. Following the aim to undo the partition and to destroy Pakistan India choked off the Rivers waters on 1 April 1948. the relief was arranged through Indus Water Treaty 1960 – giving three Eastern Rivers to India and three Western Rivers emanating from Kashmir to Pakistan. Giving away the Rivers to another country was an unprecedented trick with the destiny of Pakistan through a colossal conspiracy. The replacement work was arranged by the World Bank and supported by friendly countries. India’s capture of Kashmir as planned in October 1947 enabled her to rearrange the flow of the Eastern Rivers to her advantage and also to construct dams and barrages on rivers Chenab and Jehlam (in Kashmir) to control the flow of these rivers and to have power-houses in Kashmir for Indian use: Kashmiris still suffering from load-shedding for many hours of the day. As of today India is in a position to control the flow of rivers waters into Pakistan. It can deny the waters in her control to turn Pakistan into a desert: there is no gain saying may or may not.
The Architects of Tragedy of Kashmir – Pre and Post Partition
- Mr. Attlee the Prime Minister of Britain said: Pakistan is an unworkable “proposition” (4). “What we had to agree to, unfortunately, for it was not our wish at all – was the division of India…we had to agree to it” (5).
- Dr. Shayam Parshad Mukar Ji said: “If the British Rule is withdrawn after a forcible division of India who will prevent the free state of Hindustan from re-establishing its authority over the entire Indian Territory” (6)? Hindu Mahasbah, RSS, BJP still believe in this agenda.
- Sardar Patel the iron man of Congress pacified the die-hard Hindus by giving them an assurance: “Give Jinnah his state it would not survive anyway. In five years, the Muslim League would be knocking at doors begging Indians for reunification” (7).
- Dewan Chaman Lal, known to be a liberal visualized and wished that: “Partition of India is a temporary measure. Thirty crore Hindus, should be ready to lay down their lives for the reunification of India and Pakistan” (8).
- Raja Mehendar Partab’s vision of India’s future: (December 20, 1950). “Our country cannot make any progress unless Pakistan is finished off. I would advise the Government of India to join hands with Afghanistan and finish off Pakistan as soon as possible” (9).
- Nirad C Chaudhry in his book (The Continent of Circe) records that: “Patel thought of police action against Pakistan or even a walk over and if India were so minded she could sweep upto Peshawar” (10).
- To demand the vivisection of a living organism is to ask for its very life”. Gandhi(11)
- Leave India to God. If that is too much, then leave her to anarchy”. Gandhi(12)
- Let them entrust India to God or in modern parlance to anarchy. Then all the parties will fight one another like dogs. I shall expect non-violence to arise out of that chaos”. Gandhi(13)
- The Hindu leaders had lost patience and decorum as Annie Besant noted that “Congress is becoming intolerable tyranny by denial of free speech to the minority” (14). This holds good for ever.
- About the rights of Muslims, Gandhi said, “I find no parallel in history for a body of converts and their descendants claiming to be a nation apart from the present stock. If India was one nation before the advent of Islam, it must remain one inspite of the change of faith of a very large body of her children” (15). The people in the West do not understand the mindset of Hindus who can misrepresent the ground realities. To Hindus all non-Hindus are minorities, polluted and polluting. The real picture is as it has always been: “To be a Hindu is to be a Hindu, Hindus are Hindus, Sikhs are Hindus, Muslims are Hindus” (Shiv Sena Activists – Mombai 1996 – Continent of Circe – Nirad C Choudhary). “Life long observation has convinced me that there is a streak of insanity in Hindus and that no body will arrive at a correct appraisement of Hindu private and public behaviour on the supposition that they a normal personality. This madness lurks within their ordinary workaday self like a monomania – it is party dementia praecox and partly paranoia – these are clear signs of either a feebleness of mental faculty or a perversion of them”. (16) As these negative tendencies exist for a fact, one could ignore the impact at the peril of life.
- And a fair warning: “Beware of words in India above all beware of Verba magistri”. (17)
- According to Dr. Ambedkar the Dalit leader who wrote Indian constitution had to escape to Buddhism. He said, “Hinduism killed Buddhism in a fraternal embrace”. Hinduism has always assimilated others. Mr. Vajpayee the BJP leader declared categorically that Muslims can offer prayers in their Mosques, can perform Haj but when there is conflict between Makkah and India, they will have to be loyal to India.
- Lord Alexander during negotiation with Hindu leaders came to observe that “Gandhi wanted to secure power without a constitution coming into being and so abandon the just claims of the Muslim Legue”.(18)
- The Congress continued to demand “immediate independence for India as a whole, under a government selected by the Congress High Command”.(19)
- The Hindu psyche and culture which is intolerant of others, displays their fundamentalism irrespective of the law of the land. All the Hindu sections are united against Muslims. The “destruction of babri Masjid (6 December 1992) and gunning down of Sikhs Gurdwara in 1982 and many mosques and holy places in Kashmir, was the defining moment in the history of Independent India”.(20)
Gandhi and other Hindu leaders were anxious to see the British quit India and to leave the unity of Hindus and Muslims to Indians – the minorities had nothing to give to the Majority and it would have been a tyranny if the dominant majority of Hindus was restricted by the demands of minorities. There was logic and there was a plan to bury the Muslims through the force of the majority.
Gandhi (26 December 1947) the apostle of non-violence said: “I have always been opposed to wars, but if other methods failed to get justice from Pakistan, India will have no other option but to wage war against Pakistan”.
Nehru’s Fantasy for Kashmir
- The original sin which the world believed was only an emotional attachment of Nehru with his ancestral land of Kashmir – but in fact it had shielded the nastiest intentions to destroy Pakistan even when it had become a reality. Nehru’s words tell a lot. A ceremony on which Sheikh Abdullah had to be present but he was behind prison bars, Nehru felt the pangs of conscience. He said, When I think of it, I hang my head in shame. All I can say now is that Kashmir is like a flame in my heart”.(21)
- Confiding in General Frank Messervy the C-in-C Pakistan, Nehru spoke his heart; he said that he “quite appreciated my argument” (in favour of Kashmir joining Pakistan) but “as Calais was written on Queen Mary’s heart, so Kashmir is written on mine”.(22)
- On another occasion Nehru said, “We cannot and we will not leave Kashmir to its fate. The fate of Kashmir was tied to the fate of Nehru family, their intertwined destiny – the fact is that Kashmir is of the most vital significance to India. There lies the rub…we have to see it through to the end. Kashmir is going to be a drain on our resources but it is going to be a great drain on Pakistan”.(23)
Now we move ahead of the world of emotions and fantasies to real politik…the picture of India’s commitment to the world community and Nehru’s words of Honour make a clear make a clear picture: few samples out of scores:
- We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given not only ot the people of Kashmir but to the world. We will not and we cannot back out of it. We are anxious not to finalise any thing in a moment of crisis and without the fullest opportunity to be given to the people of Kashmir to have their say – it is for them ultimately to decide”.(24)
- “We have given our pledge to the people of Kashmir and subsequently to the United Nations. We stood by it and we stand by it today. Let the people of Kashmir decide”.(25)
- People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity for sale or to be bartered. It has an individual existence and its people must be the final arbiters of their future.”(26)
- “We have taken the issue to the United Nations and we have given our word of honour for a peaceful solution. As a great nation we cannot go back on it. We have left the question for final solution to the people of Kashmir and we are determined to abide by their decision and conscience”.(27)
- When Sheikh Abdullah felt that the result of the plebiscite may not be favourable, Nehru told him, “You know well that this business of plebiscite is still far away. There is a possibility of plebiscite not taking plate at all – this should not be made public”.(28)
The Real Nehru
- Nehru unfolds his inner self to Josef Karbel – a nominee of India for UNCIP. “We want to co-operate and work towards co-operation and one day integration will inevitably come if it will be in four or five years, I do not know”.(29)
- When Nehru attacked Goa a Portuges colony (1960) Mr. Kennedy said of him (for Nehru was a preacher of principles to the world) “the pope has been caught in the brother”.
- A similar performance – talking to Lord Birdwood opening his heart to him he said, “To place responsibility for so vital a decision on the shoulders of ignorant Kashmiris was hardly fair. The introduction of some representative body had to take the decision on their behalf”.(30) As if the wolf knew the interest of the sheep better!
- US Ambassador Loy Henderson wired to Secretary of State Dean Acheson about his meeting with Nehru: “He said, he was tired of receiving moralistic advice from US. India did not need advice…his own record and that of Indian Foreign relations was one of integrity and honesty which did not warrant admonitions. He did not care to receive lectures. So far as Kashmir was concerned, he would not give an inch. He would hold his ground even if Kashmir, India and the whole world goes to pieces”.(31)
Twist of Logic
- Nehru’s mouth piece, Mr. Krishana Menon addressing UNO 23-27 June 1957 declared that:
“This is a very serious matter for us – we are a federation. We are not a confederation and the units that accede to the federation in once they have acceded – the matter was finished – therefore there is no such thing as going out”.(32)
No one could fix Indians even to their own testimonies! Was India not aware of its status of federation when it committed itself to UN Resolutions on plebiscite in August 1948 and January 1949. Obviously Indian backtracking was encouraged by UN’s fading concern of the dispute.
Political Philosophy of Indian National Congress
- Lord Alexander a member of the commission spoke about Gandhi (May 1946) – “Congress wants to secure power without a constitution coming into being and so to abandon the just claim of Muslim League”.(33)
- “The Congress demanded immediate independence for India as a whole under the government selected by the Congress High Command”. (34)
- The converts though in large numbers cannot be outside the nation. (35) In India there is only one nation – the Hindu nation (Supreme Court 1996)
- Destruction of Babri Mosque (December 1992) was the defining moment in the history of Independent India”.(36)
Mountbatten in Leading Role – His Words and Game-Plan in Service of Hindu India
- Soon after his arrival in India in March 1947, “it was clear to me” (Mountbatten) that:
“The partition is sheer madness and no one would ever induce me to agree to it. Were it not for this fantastic communal madness that has seized everybody and leaves no other course open”. I have an impression that Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan intends to help me find a more reasonable solution than this mad Pakistan”.(37)
- Lord Birdwood who had a insight into the affairs of the partition and Indian ways of doings, - says:
“If the Kashmir episode could in any way contribute to educating the world whose poverty of political morality must amaze the host of heaven, then perhaps some where there is compensation for so sad a story”.(38)
- Mountbatten’s true face exposed at his farewell, (June 1948) by Mr. Nehru:
“Lord Mountbatten has acted in India’s interest as sincerely as any Indian could have done. Lord Mountbatten has held Indian honour high when he left, Indians felt the same regret when a brother went”.(39)
- Of all the perfidies committed in an office Mountbatten’s collusion with Nehru was most immoral. First he had employed Mr. V.P. Menon (Patel’s man who reported to him all goings on) as his secretary to deal with affairs of transfer of power. The partition plan submitted by Mountbatten to London was returned to him on 16 May 1947. Mr. Nehru along with his daughter on personal invitation of Mountbatten was staying at Viceroy’s house at Simla. The Partition plan draft was given to Nehru…Mountbatten’s confession (a most heinous act):
“Having made real friends with Nehru during his stay here, I asked him whether he would like to look at London draft (of the plan for voting on partition) as an act of friendship and on the understanding that he would not utilise his prior knowledge or mention to his colleagues that he had seen it. He readily gave this undertaking and took the draft to bed”. Next morning Nehru wrote to Mountbatten that the plan he had reviewed, “frightened him – a picture of worsening relations between India and Britain….It will be a disaster”. In view of Nehru’s bombshell, Lord Ismay was asked for another run on “redrafting of the plan”. This hurried work was entrusted to V.P. Menon who was at hand. This work was done within three hours. In the new concept there was a promise of India remaining in Commonwealth. V.P. Menon’s work was naturally, to be accepted by the Congress. The Partition plan was finalised without any knowledge to the Muslim League. Mountbatten left for London: Punjab and Bengal were partitioned.(40) The Hindu leaders knew well that the partition of Bengal and Punjab will place on ground a moth-eaten and truncated Pakistan whose prospects of survival were dim indeed.
Mountbatten – the Machiavelli
Sir Francis Tuker who had an in-depth knowledge of the affairs of India, in his book, “While The Memory Serves” said, “We all know now that Kashmir, most of which for many reasons should have joined Pakistan was no less invaded by Hindustan than by tribesmen of NWFP. It looked to an observer as though Machiaveli was already in the Hindustan cabinet. The unfair deal has made the solution difficult especially when the possession becomes the rule of the game”.(41)
Dr. Robert G Wirsing University of Carolina in his book (India Pakistan and Kashmir Dispute) says, “The Kashmir dispute was born amid circumstances that were uniquely well tailored to stir up bitter controversy”.(42)
Mountbatten while on the run to put India on horse back, with a whip in hand displayed his bias against Pakistan now became pronounced and, “his enthusiasm for the Indian cause proved to be extremely useful to the new Congress government, especially during the coming conflict over Kashmir”.(43)
- The partition plan made acceptable to the British Government and convenient for India for a while was linked with India staying in Common Wealth; to derive benefits and also the security. Mountbatten considered “India’s unbroken link with the British crown and its retention within the Common Wealth my most important achievement”.(44) Pakistan was relegated or downgraded for times come.
- Mountbatten’s contribution towards giving long life to Kashmir dispute is linked with his agreement with Quaid-i-Azam to refer the case to UNO for settlement through a plebiscite. “Eventually despite Gandhi’s disapproval Mountbatten succeeded in persuading Nehru to go to United Nation with complaint against Pakistan”. (45) The Indian leaders cursed Nehru for getting India involved in an unending dispute otherwise they could have driven the enemy out of Kashmir. Mountbatten left India in June 1948. India and Pakistan remain at each others throats within sight of twenty-first century…it was the unkindest parting kick of the British Raj…”The third party” created this tragedy – it kept India by policy of divide and rule and left India and Pakistan divided in mind and heart; still more seriously as bitter enemies of each other…an unending bad blood is running in veins on both sides of the border.
Hindu Culture – Logic of Life
All the above quoted venom-loaded challenges and threats were born out of a culture and nourished by Chankiya (Kutaliya 200 B.C) who proved to be the source of wily wisdom – the pathfinder of Hindus’ psyche and giver of their code of life. He cultivated a mentality, which can shake any prudent and decent man in any society in the world. His four pillars of wisdom followed and practiced by Hindus are:
- Never let lust for power and conquest of other country die.
- All neighbour states must be treated as enemies.
- Seek friendship and co-operation of all other states beyond your neighbour.
- Think not of peace even if the whole world wants it…lip service to peace and good neighborliness should continue as a camouflage.
Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Hindu Mahasabha and some others of the same ilk who are serious believers in supremacy of Hindus have no stomach for non-Hindu classes. They are fundamentalist in raw form; intolerant, rabid, venomous and aggressive against the weak, but very peevish against strong.
Bharatya Janta Party a fundamentalist Hindus’ political party has risen in strength in the national parliament (Lok Sabha) from two seats in 1985 to 178 in 1998 by coming out boldly for Hindu Raj. They proved their madness by demolishing 500 years old Babri Mosque at Ayudiya where they claimed that mythical god RAM had taken birth. The madness spread subsequently all over India enguling Christians, Dalits and others. They continue to be on rampage aimed at destruction and desecration of Mosques, Gurdwaras, Churches and holy Shrines and as a punitive action they have been burning Dalits in their dwellings. All non-Hindu human beings are untouchable and polluting – they seriously believe and practice this cult. A technique prescribed by Chankiya to deal with the enemy:
When you want to kill your enemy befriend him,
When you are about to kill him embrace him,
When you have killed him,
Weep over his dead body.
With this backdrop and Hindu psyche the creation of Pakistan was a great upset for Hindu India. To undo the partition directly or indirectly sooner or later, Hindus applied all the methods and conspiracies to rub off the entity of Muslmans and even other minorities. Once Pakistan had surfaced on the map, all out efforts were made by Indai to destroy its ideology and with it the country which became the only roadblock for the Hindus’ sovereignty over the region. Kashmir was phase one of this operation.
THE ACCESSION - A HOAX
As claimed by India, she moved her army into the state only when the Maharaja had signed the accession; we proceed from here in search of the truth regarding this claim of India.
The maharaja of Kashmir was forced by the Governor General Lord Mountbatten, (on special mission) to delay the accession: till 15 August 1947. The game plan was to bag Hyderabad and Junagadh before attending to Kashmir. The former was grabbed through police action and the latter through a stage managed plebiscite as India has addressed a serious protest to UNO against Junagadh’s (a Hindu majority state) declared accession to Pakistan. She made sure that no Hindu state should accede to Pakistan though some of the Rajput Princes of Rajastan did not want to go with caste ridden Hindus.
According to Indian leaders, the attack by tribal Lashkars on Muzaffarabad on 22 October and their advance towards Srinagar forced the Maharaja to ask for accession to India. It is a misrepresentation as it would appear from the following facts:
- The obvious question is as to why Kashmir did not accede to one of the dominions for two and half months after the transfer of Power on 14/15 August 1947? The Indians made much of a story out of a coincidence which served India very well and the ignorant could not understand or judge the veracity of the misrepresentation coined by Indian schemers.
- Almost all the states did that appropriately. The held back State of Kashmir till the fourth week of October had no threat of the invasion of tribal lashkars on Muzaffarabad till 22 October 1947 as is evident from the diaries and the proceedings of the Defence Committee of the Cabinet and the flight of Maharaja from his summer capital at Srinagar to Jammu on being advised by V.P. Menon to do so. Tribal invasion was lucky incident for invasion of Kashmir and not the cause for hurried request for accession.
- It was not the “biggest blunder of Pakistan” to launch tribal Lashkars which actually came to save the people from the genocide being carried out by Hindu gangs; supported by the state Army and the armed Indian gangs inducted into the state by Indian government. It of course suited India to invade Kashmir which had not acceded to India. The lie and the fraud filled the pages of history – making Kashmiris the victims of fantasies and violence for decades.
Few scenes of the drama of the accession of Kashmir to India
- The Defence Committee of the cabinet chaired by the Governor General, Lord Mountbatten received the bad news about the attack of tribal Lashkars on Muzaffarabad, as the Indian version goes, on 24 October.
- Mr. V.P. Menon the secretary to Mountbatten on Affairs of the partition was dispatched to Srinagar on morning of 25 October for an on spot study.
- Having assessed the situation, at Srinagar, he advised Maharaj to vacate his palace and leave for Jammu, the winter capital. The maharaja’s caravan consisted of all functional transport of over 250 vehicles and left for Jammu on morning 26 October. He reached Jammu late at night 26/27 October 1947.
- V.P. Menon accompanied by M.C. Mahajan the Prime Minister of Kashmir returned to Delhi on morning of 26 October.
- The Defence Committee discussed V.P. Menon’s report during morning and afternoon sessions on 26 October. During the afternoon session on 26 October it was decided by the Defence Committee of Cabinet that military aid will be provided to the Maharaja on 27 October 1947.
- Lord Mountbatten considered it necessary to have the accession finalized before the launching of the Army. The accession was approved and the aid programme announced by the Defence Committee of Cabinet of India at Delhi.
- Mr. V.P. Menon’s version: accompanied by M.C. Mahajan the Prime Minister of Kashmir he carried the instrument of the Accession for signature of the Maharaja then at Jammu on the evening of 26 October. In V.P. Menon’s own words from his book:
“he (Maharaja) also signed the instrument of accession – just as I was leaving he told me that before he went to sleep, he had left instructions with his ADC, if I came back from Delhi he was not to be disturbed as it would mean that the Government of India had decided to come to his rescue and he should therefore be allowed to sleep in peace: but if I failed to return, it meant that everything was lost and in that case his ADC was to shoot him in his sleep”.(46)
V.P. Menon gave a personal touch by concocting a most intimate dialogue with the Maharaja only to add credibility to his version of his meeting with the Maharaja in Jammu on night 26 October 1947. There is documentary proof that he did not/he could not visit Jammu on that day. A lie remains a lie whosever tells. But this lie was the biggest one of the twentieth century as proved by M. C. Mahajan Prime of Kashmir who was stated by V.P. Menon to have been with him.
According to V.P. Menon the Maharaja signed the instrument of Accession on 26 October and only after that the Indian Army was dispatched by air to Srinagar early next morning – 27 October. The whole sensational drama of accession of Kashmir rests on this fictitious point of time.
Stanely Walpert in his two books brings out the whole truth: “Mahajan (The Prime of Kashmir) “reports the reverse”. Inida’s claim to Kashmir was in legal terms, based on having secured a legitimate Instrument of Accession, prior of air lifting of troops into the Vale. On morning of 27 Oct 1947 M.C. Mahajan while still at Delhi narrates:
“In the early hours of the morning of 27th, I could hear the noise of the planes flying over Sardar Baldev Singh’s house (where Mahajan spent the night) carrying the military personnel to Srinagar. At about 9 a.m. (27 October) I got a message from Srinagar that the troops had landed there and had gone into action. On receipt of this message I flew to Jammu with Mr. VP Menon. Mr. Menon and myself met Highness (hari Singh had driven down from Srinagar the previous night to his winter capital) at the palace…after some discussion, formal documents were signed which Mr. menon took back to New Delhi…I stayed at Jammu”.(47)
The lie is pinned down at source. The sin had most serious side effects for millions of Kashmiris and over a billion of people of the subcontinent.
Non-suspecting people especially the Western took for granted the news as correct about the accession of Kashmir to India. The princely states (584 in all) had to accede to one of the two dominions by 15 August 1947, subject to the following conditions:
- According to the wishes of the people.
- On basis of contiguity of the area.
These conditions were not satisfied as is evident from following studies.
- Patrick French observes:
“Like many of the important events of 1947 it will appear that India’s successful capture of Kashmir was in fact as much a matter of luck and swift action as of design”. (48)
- Alastair Lamb an outstanding scholar and an honest historian in his Research Papers, authenticated by his signature, and his book ‘Birth of a Tragedy’, provides proof which cannot be challenged by any observer or any analyst. According to him, V.P. Menon could not be trusted when he claimed to have been “actually present when the Maharaja signed, are simply not true”. He states further that, “M.C. Mahajan who was negotiating with Government of India and the senior Indian official concerned in states matters, VP Menon were still in Delhi where they remaied overnight and where their presence was noted by many observers”. The British High Commissioner is one of them who had met him at the airport and who was visited the same evening by V.P. Menon saying that he could not take the flight to Jammu during late evening hours. There was no communication of any sort between New Delhi and the traveling Maharaja. Menon and Mahajan set out by air from New Delhi to Jammu at about 10 a.m. on 27 October. These documents could have been signed after the overt Indian intervention in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. When the Indian troops arrived at Srinagar airfield that state was still independent. Any agreement with Maharaja could have been produced under duress. The validity of any document signed under duress leaves no credit for validity of the document. India while landing the forces in Kashmir was not defending its won but intervening in a foreign state. Had UN understood the true chronology it would have listened with less sympathy to the argument prosecuted by Indian representatives. Given the facts as they are now known, it may well be that an impartial international tribunal would decide that India had no right at all to be in the state of Jammu and Kahmir”.(49)
- The Security Council did not accept the validity of the accession hence the Security Council Resolutions aimed final settlement through plebiscite under UNO.
- India tried to hoodwink and short circuit the Un proceedings by securing confirmation of accession by Kashmir Assembly. UN in most emphatic language (Resolution 122 of 24 January 1957) warned “The final disposition of the state of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of United Nations.
The will of the People – Circumvented
Just after the declaration of the partition plan by the Governor General on 3 June 1947 and before the actual transfer of power on 14/15 August 1947, majority of the Muslim members of the Kashmir Assembly. 16 out 21 in a formal resolution had declared their intent to accede to Pakistan. The Maharaja could not have ignored the declaration if he had any initiative but the Governor General and Nehru had mutually arranged to delay the accession. The Maharaja was warned by Mountbatten during his visit to Srinagar (21-24 June) in words unbecoming for both: “man make up your mind otherwise I will make up for you and announce myself”. This visit of Mountbatten was “personal and private” on an invitation extended to him by the Maharaja during Prince of Wales’s Royal visit to India twenty two years ago. Mountbatten held back Nehru and employed Gandhi for a special role. Gandhi visited Srinagar (1-4 August) to prevail on Maharaja and Maharani to release Sheikh Abdullah who was much needed to perform for India. Gandhi’s visit was also of “personal and private” nature. His visit also was in response to Maharaja Partab Singh’s invitation extended to him during Kumbh Mela 25 years ago.
While in the office of Governor General, common to both the communities Mountbatten played a treacherous game. He barred the visit of Mr. Jinnah (18-20 August) to allow entry into Kashmir only to the Hindus leaders. Sheikh Abdullah was released from Jail just to perform as an oracle of people of Kashmir. The formal resolution of 19 July 1947 of Muslim conference was stifled prior to the Maharaja’s flight from Srinagar to Jammu on 25 October. The Mujahideen had already liberated one third of area of the State. On 24 October representative government of Muslim Conference was installed in office when the Maharaja had vacated or abandoned his seat of authority. The present Government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is the extension of that political will which had declared the accession to Pakistan. The activity in the UNO and the subsequent wars buried the loudest voice of people of Kashmir legally and loudly broadcast twenty-five days before the transfer of power to India and Pakistan.
Why the Drama of Accession was Delayed till October 1947?
Soon after the declaration of the partition plan on 3 June 1947 the Maharaja’s army was deployed in important townships and at the bridges to control the movement to and from Pakistan. Having signed a stand still Agreement with Pakistan the gangs of Mahasbha, RSS and Akalis were issue with weapons to carry out ethnic cleansing of Musalmans. The people of Poonch and Mirpur rose in revolt and drove Maharaja’s army towards the interior. The date line of the accession of Kashmir in August passed in an atmosphere of turbulence. As the readers will recollect that Mountbatten himself, Raj Gopal Acharya the Congress President and Gandhi had made utmost efforts to prevail on Maharaja to join India but he was reluctant though his prime minister R.C. Kak was in favour of accession to Pakistan and against the accession to India. The efforts of the Governor General Mountbatten and of other Congress leaders concentrated on release of Sheikh Abdullah the lion of Kashmir and protégé of Nehru bore fruit rather late: on 30 September 1947. On 1 October 1947 Sheikh Abdullah presented the silken handkerchief with gold coin in it – as a mark of loyalty to the Maharaja. With Abdullah a Congress phile on the centre stage, Maharaja’s fortune and position were eclipsed. On 20 October Sheikh Abdullah was in Delhi to lead the conspiracy of accession. He had R. C. Kak Prime Minister of Kashmir arrested – hand tied he was paraded through bazars. Mountbatten had another brilliant idea about the arrangement of the unchallengeable accession. He thought that since India existed as a recognized country and if Kashmir had acceded to it before Pakistan came into being on 14/15 August, there would be no problem or point of dispute. Since Maharaja was not willing and Abdullah was in jail, this trump card could not be played. The conspiracy’s bitter harvest could not be without lessons. After the landing of Indian troops in Srinagar, Maharaja was treated shabbily – he had to leave the state to die at Bombay; an unsung death. Kashmir has been a hell since then. It was not the attack of tribal Lashkars which is being made up as the cause of pushing Maharaja into Indian fold but the time needed to get Abdullah out of jail to speak for Kashmiris. Sheikh Abdullah having played a traitor to his people languished in Indian Jails for fifteen years for anti-state activities. His grave is now being protected by Indian troops.
Out of 584 princely states the fate of only three remained hung in balance after 15 August – Hyderabad, Junagadh and Kashmir. Ultimately all the three states were absorbed into India. Hyderabad on the grounds of a administrative necessity and internal unrest although its Muslim ruler wished to be independent; Kashmir because its Hindu Maharaja choose to join despite the majority of his three million subjects being Muslims and Junagadh on account of the state being culturally Hindu, even though its Muslim ruler had clearly acceded to Pakistan” India had sent a strong protest to UNO, occupied the state and arranged a plebiscite and won academically.(50)
The accession stage – managed had no legs to stand on except fraud and force.
V.P. Menon a Hindu who had worked out the partition plan was placed in most vital and critical appointment by the Viceroy and the Governor and General in complicity with Hindu leaders of Congress party – they all made the game for India a great success. V.P. Menon by claiming to have obtained the Maharaja’s signatures on the instrument of accession misled the whole world as FM Rommel had done to a British corps in the Western desert only by changing the direction of the signpost displayed on ground. The mastermind behind this manipulation was Lord Mountbatten himself who chaired the meetings of Defence Committee of Cabinet (DCC) as a specialist and as the head of the State he could not. He developed and directed the operations in Kashmir. Mountbatten himself Rajgopal Acharaya and Mr. Gandhi made a beeline to Srinagar: it was an exclusive business affairs of the Indian leaders. The Kashmir operation was planned under the direction and guidance of Mountbatten and executed by the British Chiefs of the Services. Pakistan was warned that if Pak Army tried to go into Kashmir, the British officers serving with Pakistan Army would be withdrawn instantly. Mr. Jinnah was pursuded by Field Marshal Auchinlek the then Supreme Commander and General Gracey officiating. C-in-C Pakistan to withdraw his orders for Pakistan Army’s entry into Kashmir otherwise there will be a war between the two dominions and Pakistan would have to be deprived of the British officers then serving in Pak Army.
Field Marshal Auchinlek made it clear to Mr. Jinnah that since the accession of Kashmir to India was valid hence Pakistan would be wrong to attack Kashmir therefore the threat of withdrawal of the British officers…conspiracy was successfully implemented.
India goes to UNO and U Turns
India cannot conceal the fact that state of Kashmir was forced to delay the declaration of the accession for two and a half months from dateline 15 August 1947. the locals rebellion forced India to seek cover of UN umbrella, requesting for the cease-fire and offering to settle the issue through the plebiscite under UN. The petition to UNO was as clear as that. Various UN Commissions failed to arrange the stage for the plebiscite due to India’s ever-changing stance on already accepted points and raising new problems only to kill the issue by wasting time. Finding encouragement from the Western powers and Russia, India declared Kashmir as an integral part of her country. UNO which had this dispute on its record did not challenge India for the spurious maps showing Kashmir as part of her territory. India being one of the two parties to dispute snatching initiative from UNO adopted various methods to merge the state by erosion of the special status given to Kashmir under Section 370 of Indian Constitution, Sheikh Abdullah the Kashmiri leader who had led Kashmir into the trap was kept in jails for over fifteen years till his spine folded; he succumbed to the treachery of his mentors: the Nehru family. The Maharaja died a lonely death. The farcical elections were staged on many occasions as subterfuge, a substitute or evasion of UN supervised plebiscite. The powers of the world saw this drama with sense of accommodation only to satisfy self enlightened interest at the cost of thousands of lives of Kashmiris and the peace always at the peril. All the years since 1947 India and Pakistan remained on red alert besides two wars on this issue.
The boycott of the elections by 98% Kashmiris in 1989, was a verdict of the people as a proof of total alienation with India. Victoria Schofield in her book, (Kashmir in Crossfire) said empathically that “India had fifty years to win over the hearts of Kashmiris”, she failed.(51) Now she is facing an indigenous, popular and powerful resistance movement. India is left with no choice but to use her military power to crush the people mercilessly: the Red Cross and the Amnesty International remained banned to operate or to provide relief of any kind. If Kashmir was an integral part of India, as India claims and as her admirers go with it, would she kill the people in their hearths and homes and destroy their property as that of enemy? It is clear that India is determined to keep Kashmir even by exterminating Kashmiris. The world knows it. Its misplaced or selective wisdom has become a barrier to human sympathy.
The reports of Human Rights Commission were ignored and farcical trials staged to fox the world. All the men of the world now understand well that India specialises in double talk and reserves the right to give her own meanings to words in her won way…still her bogus cards of democracy and secularism have a weightage. Though she waged Dharamyudh (religious war) against China in the name of their own kind of religion; an irony!
USA and UK which had supported the UN Resolutions on Kashmir in 1947-48 have said repeatedly that UN Resolutions were “outdated”. The fraudulently arranged elections held in Kashmir (1996 and 1998) at the points of bayonets were termed as a step towards normalization of democratic process. India’s illegal occupation in face of UN Resolutions leading to unlimited and unchecked barbarities and openly practiced genocide and gangrapes is being glossed over and even legimitised. UNO is no longer a trustee of rights of humanity: the law of jungle is operative in the midst of claims of the civilized world.
The Phenomenon of Bilateralism – Unilateralism – Neutralism:
The term of bilateralism became current after Simla Agreement (1972) between India and Pakistan. It promised to settle all the outstanding issues including Kashmir. The UN was not in it. The cease-fire-line was replaced by Line of Control (LOC). The UN observers on the Indian side were de-activated by India unilaterally: India did not allow them to take complaints or visit troubled areas.
From the start of the case in UNO and the perception in vogue now, there is a world of difference. UN is now a non-player and non-party. It was hoped that these two neighbours (as envisaged in Simla Agreement) will settle all disputes so as to be rid of the centuries old hatred to bring a dawn for amelioration of poor people of the subcontinent. But after the Simla Agreement Indian called all the problems between the two countries as ‘bilateral issues’. Since then India treated Kashmir also as a bilateral matter: neither she would discuss it as envisaged in Simla Agreement nor allow third party, including the UNO to take interest in “India’s internal affairs”…as she is saying these days. She does not permit others to “poke their nose into India’s affairs”. Pakistan has been requesting – US, UK and UNO and other channels for mediation, they all were agreeable provided India also made similar request. So, the bilateralism drifted to become unilateralism – India’s wishes were to prevail: thief becoming or accepted as judge!
The friendly nations (Western Powers) have been recommending the settlement through ‘meaningful bilateral dialogue or negotiations’. In case of emergencies or wars these powers always adopted the policy of neutralism which favoured India on almost all the occasions. Pakistan should have read this situation when Russia applied vetoes on Kashmir on call of India. When Khurshchev and Bulganian visited India (1955) they declared Kashmir as part of India. Since then and even now our Allies remained neutral in case of a scuffle between their “friends” – one psychologically and physically dependent the other nearly self-sufficient and also receiving all needs and requirements from both the blocs and all the countries. India the charming doll gave cosy touch to both the adversaries without either of them objecting to the nearness of the other.
In 1996, UNO thought of withdrawing UN observers, from Kashmir thinking exactly on Indian lines as a liability though UN observers themselves were also fired upon on numerous occasions by Indian troops deployed across the LOC. The Kashmir issue was dropped (1996) from UN’s active agenda but after protests by Pakistan. It was allowed to be staged only if the merit was proved. So the Kashmir issue was deranged by India with the active connivance of the Western Powers and Russia. UNO is no more a sounding board. The border violations and Human rights violations were treated as matters of bilateral concern: in practice a unilateral affair of India which remained on warpath and Pakistan could not invite even a mediator. The bilateralism in fact protected unilateralism. It provided proof of disinterest and heartlessness even at UN HQ. Pakistan must be admired for keeping good faith and hopes to request these powers to help solve the dispute through mediation. The Human Rights violations which had assumed grave proportions in Kashmir were reported by the agencies; both Indian and Western, without effect. The unending genocide in Kashmir did not matter….the policy of so-called neutralism but actually supporting India has proved very hurting to Pakistan and Kashmirs. The book of experiences reads: Pakistan remained targeted all the way. The options are limited and the sands of time are running out: though the game is not over as yet. Pakistan has to get the cockpit right.
The following themes have been persistently exploited by India to present Pakistan in an awkward light and to mislead the world: sadly, these were/are accepted by the West.
- That if fourteen/fifteen million Kashmiri Muslims secede from India, then the security of 150 million Muslims in India will be jeopardized. It means that Kashmiris must serve as hostages otherwise India will not provide security to its own Muslim citizens. What a secular state? The argument is otherwise baseless because Kashmir has never been a part of India. The demolition of Babri Mosque (December 1992) and burning of many Mosques and holy Shrines in Kashmir speak for the morality of Hindu (secular) state. In early part of this year (Jan, Feb. 1999) nuns were gangraped in hostels in Madyapardesh, the churches were/are burnt and missionaries harassed. Dalits, another major group of a minority community about 170 million are untouchables: their shadow pollutes the high caste Hindus. This community remained on punishment line throughout its life. Every non-Hindu in India is treated as a foreign element and treated with contempt.
- The second fear drummed up by India and shared by secular minded West and others is that if Kashmir is allowed to break away, there are other states in India which will take the cue and follow the suit. This fear is misapplied as Kashmir was not part of India, it is a disputed territory on UN record, it never acceded to India hence there is no sense in equating it with other organic Indian states. However the situation obtaining in India is that many states in India are restive; struggling for their own identity and status. India is otherwise divided within itself. The chess players of the world consider India too big to be ruled.
India’s hegemonic tendencies have made life of her small neighbour states miserable and hazardous like Sri Lanka which is suffering from a civil war created by India which ultimately cost Rajiv Gandhi’s life. Sikkim has been absorbed and Nepal is choked at pleasure and kept on tenterhooks. India incited a rebellions movement in Maldives – kept its’ flying armada ready to render help – it got itself invited to quell the rebellion. The game plan was exposed when the world saw the coincidence of occurrence of rebellion in Maldive and simultaneous take off of the force from the launching pad in India. India dreams of having her sway from Malacca Straits to Madagascar, and from Hindukush to the Indian Ocean – “the Indian Lake”. The military power has been developed despite her forty percent population living below poverty line. The power resting on clay feet, is destined to go down. When the sinking ‘TITAN’ makes an eddy it will cause a havoc in the region.
c. India being a congenital liar she employs all means and guile to mislead the opinion of the world about Pakistan. Her popular themes have been to present Pakistan as a theocratic state dominated by fundamentalists, mad for Islam hence mad towards others, hand in gloves with Taliban and terrorists who had provided sanctuary to Osama Bin-laden the enemy of America and anything American. One wonders how ignorant these wise scholars are of the ground realities. Was Pakistan not a key role player in American defence pacts and an anvil in Afghanistan which reduced the Russian Empire? The foreigners and minorities living in Pakistan have always been sure of their safety even when there were local disturbances of any kind. For fleeting advantages America teased and harmed Pakistan to an extent that it was kept in a poor state of defence capability. Inida stood on Russian side in Hungary (1956) and performed nominally in Korea and supported NAM with an aim opposed to the west. Indian conduct should have been seen in the light of observation. The caste ridden Hindus will continue to desecrate and demolish Mosques, Churches, Gurdwaras, gangraping missionaries and burring alive Dalits and missionaries. India has successfully placed the mantle on Muslimans who have made it a religious duty of the state to protect the minorities. This term ‘fundamentalists’ is widely misused by the West as this baton has been handed over to ignorant Westerners by Hindus, who have successfully deflected their own madness against humanity: their gods have many faces and many limbs… Cobra is one of their gods – its stings are deadly. Mr. Kennedy who said that (when India attacked Goa in 1960) “the Pope (Nehru) was caught in the brothel”. India has been flouting the principles yet she stayed honourable because of hundreds of millions of hungry people which count as a great population and a very large exploitable market.
One Against Many
On 27 October 1947 at 0900 – Indian Army landed at Srinagar airport. On 28 October F.M. Auchinlek rushed to Lahore to dissuade Quaid-e-Azam to withdraw his orders to his army to enter Kashmir immediately. Mountbatten followed Auchinlek to negotiate and pacify Quaid-e-Azam but claimed to have no authority to commit to any proposal. Nehru on excuse of sickness did not come to Lahore. On 30 October 1947, Pakistan government through press communiqué declared that in the opinion of the Government of Pakistan: “The accession of Kashmir to India is based on fraud and violence, as such cannot be recognized”. Hindus are unlike any class of enemy in the world. Even written commitments of theirs own have never been respected or owned by them. Indians had never kept their word of honour-they will never do so in the future.
Having failed to get co-operation from the Congress against the British rulers, he said “The congress Party is not only hostile to the Muslim League but they are inimical. Therefore I say to them that co-operation between you and us is not possible…but let me tell you—and I tell both of you that you alone or this organization alone or both combined will never succeed in destroying our soul. You will never be able to destroy that culture which we have inherited, the Islamic culture and that spirit will live, is going to live and has lived. You may overpower us; you may oppress us ad you can do your worst. But we have come to the conclusion and we have now made a grim resolve that we shall go down if we have to go down fighting.”(52)
Gave his life to Labour of Supreme Love for Pakistan
On 16 May 1946 Quaid-e-Azam fell unconscious in the parliamentary delegation’s meeting. After extensive examination he was hold by Doctor Patel that his lungs were finished – he was living under signal of death. He struggled hard to keep going. He was gravely ill. He had a little or no appetite and had even lost his ability to will himself to sleep. He worked in a frenzy to consolidate Pakistan. He totally neglected his health. When asked to rest he replied flatly “I have too much to do”.(53)
On 18 August 1948 on eve of Eid just twenty-two days before the end of his journey of life Quaid-e-Azam addressed his nation “I fervently pray that God Almighty make us all worthy of our past…and give us strength to make Pakistan truly a great nation among all the nations of the world”.
Kahmiris Fight for Honour
When UNO failed to implement its resolutions and the Western Powers adopted a revised policy to support the fraud committed by India, it became obvious that the Western powers and even others had become callous enough to care for the lives, interest and future of Kashmir, the people of Kashmir resorted to active Resistance Movement. The Movement is popular and indigenous. Some participants from outside do not make even four scores. There is no element of Taliban or any other outside agency.
India eroded the special section 370 of Indian constitution and turned Kashmir into a province in 1975, Kashmiris came to know that the UNO was illusive and the plebiscite a remote possibility. India staged farcical elections on many occasions which the people spurned. The first strong reaction was exhibited in October 1989 when 98% population boycotted the elections. It was verdict of total alienation. India and the world did not care.
The Freedom Movement – December 1989-1999 on going
The movement could be genuinely termed as the War of Liberation, the Resistance Movement or Jehad. It demonstrated the unity of the people, the indigenous nature and remains an unprecedented popular Movement. Just to fool the world India staged farcical elections in 1996 and 1998 which were marked by total oppression by the Indian Army – vote at the point of bayonet….700,000 troops in Kashmir made sure that the people either lose life or vote for India. On both these occasions the people of Kashmir stood strong and challenged the Indian power. Linked with Indian fluid political situation another election was held in September 1999 in Kashmir also. This time the turnout was identified by total boycott. The APHC led the people well in political campaign against the elections – India may have really accepted in her mind the position of total alienation of the people of Kashmir in almost all the districts. The wisdom should beckon India to seek an honourable way out but India will not. She is most likely to resort to more oppressive methods to crush the Freedom Movement.
Mujahideens’ Resistance Movement
Since December 1989 the Movement has taken a heavy toll of Indian Forces. The game has been going on between low key to medium level activity aimed at the attrition of Indian Forces. The aim was well served and satisfied. Kashmiris have paid very heavy price: 70,000 martyrs, thousands of women gangraped – innocent and aged women were made the victims – a method to break the will of the people, over 30,000 youth were disable, custodial killings became a normal routine. The lives and properties in villages, townships and cities have been and are being devastated. The will of the people did not sag. The Indians used all the weapons of bribe to barbarities but failed to break the people known to have been docile for centuries. The active advice and co-operations of the Indo-Israeli Commandos whipped up the response of the Mujahideen.
Kargil May – July 1999
Kargil excited the interest of people all over the world. It was a superb and classic battle. It was actually like the King Cobra caught by the neck by Mangoose. It was a rare occasion that the Indian Army ranking third in the world was totally surprised and unnerved. The dead bodies in thousands reached nooks and corners of all the states. Indians had never seen so many pyres lit all over the country in such a short time. There was gloom and all the Indian leaders both in uniform and civvies were bewildered. In 1962, close to the same region Indian was treated by Chinese dragon – “Fear was in the air – Nehru could not talk” (Galbraith US Ambassador). It happened again – a bad patch for India? The gigantic Juggernaut of India became helpless and totally neutralized in the battlefield. Over five divisions of the regular army with five hundred Bofors and hundreds of super Jet fighters could not displace Pakistanis from the hills. It was only America which came to rescue India from further humiliation but not before India was reduced in the eyes of friends and foes. Mujahideen vacated on request of Prime Minister of Pakistan. When the dateline of vacating the positions was not followed by Pakistanis, Indian troops held patience and were good to extend the time till Pakistanis vacated at their leisure. This can happen again – after all it is the man behind the gun which matters. Pakistan failed to tell the world that India is not a giant; it is a monster with clay feet and what if she was not saved by America? Is India not feeding the failure? Is Kargil and the area beyond not the point being supported by India with maximum effort at maximum cost. Is it not God given Bengla Desh?
In Pakistan people have different views on the Kargil operation. May be there were some faults which were highlighted by the end results but the fact remains that Pakistan produced a stunning victory – only 500 or so rattled whole of India – this was good enough. American intervention saved India’s soul but the ground realities have given new life to the Freedom Movement.
The flare up in Kargil Sector was a natural consequences of India’s conduct and treatment of people in Indian occupied Kashmir and also on Pakistan side of LOC: Neelum valley remained under constant shelling for years; over 90,000 people became refugees. Even UN observers were subjected to fire on numerous occasions. There have been threats by India of reclaiming Azad Kashmir…the lives of the people along the borders are kept insecure by Indian forces, all the time…UN being in picture never acted to protect them, to save them or to provide any kind of relief to the people in the cordoned area.
The heady-wine of power has made USA very arrogant and bloody minded, unreasoning and callous.
- Ignoring violations of LOC by India (Siachen 1984, Qamar 1972 and Chorbat in 1988) Pakistan was called upon (4, July 1999) to vacate Kargil and restore sancity of LOC everywhere. It will be most certainly followed by demand to stop support to the Freedom Movement.
- About very low turn out (September 1999) due to peoples strike against the election in Kashmir under bayonets and under Indian constitution was wafted as of no concern to USA – adding to this rude disposal of question Mr. James Rubin said, that despite election results in Kashmir, US will continue to keep good relations with India. Kargil forced USA to come out in the open-any added by-product of Kargil operation Pakistan should be wiser now.
- Reminded of application of East Timor precedence to Kashmir, Rubin said: “East Timor has not link with Kashmir”.
It is now clear that Pakistan must look after her security despite American interest in India. India is trying to acquire High tech capability in many fields – (war and peace) without any hindrance, in fact with the blessing of the West and US. No one is selling defence requirements to Pakistan. Washington once again has started playing on MII from China - a sin committed by Pakistan in self-defence! If America does not take personal interest in solving Kashmir dispute, we should have known it. We must keep our Real Friends certain about our future orientation. Let us not change-step midway in the future. Our friends must be sure of our grid. We have a long way to go. We cannot do without good friends.
We do not have to meet the bull head on. Fidel Castro landed on Southern rocks of Cuba with only 17 men. He grew big under shadow and the big heel of America. His mentors were thousands of miles away but he knew his enemy. He knew his role and his mission. The people with him, Cuba kept its head high despite heavy and close breathing on its neck. The nations emerged strong out of blood baths. It is important to keep the nation fully inspired and fully integrate.
Historical perspective – Indian conduct – UN Role – Risks
Mr. Josef Karbel India’s nominee on UNCIP made very sincere efforts solution of Kashmir problem. His study was through and unbiased. His studied views on the dispute including responsibility of UNO, portents, and his prophetic judgment – is a verdict indeed o the whole perspective. He surveyed the situation and concluded:
“In 1956 Nehru proceeded to negate the United Nations Resolutions, first by integrating Kashmir step by step with India and finally by openly rejecting the idea of a plebiscite. He received official support for this policy from the Soviet Union and for a while seemed to have tacit approval from India’s other “friend” – China.
The government of India has now repudiated publicly and repeatedly its commitment to a plebiscite. Such unilateral declarations relieve her in no way of her legal and moral pledge. The people of Kahmir have made it unmistakably known that they insist on being heard”. Whatever process is used, however the will of the people of Kahmir cannot be ignored. The accession of the state of Jammu and Kahmir to India cannot be considered as valid by cannons of International law. The issue itself cannot be sidetracked. The history of the case has made it clear that time has only aggravated, not healed the conflict. A prolonged neglect on the part of the participants would most certainly turn against their own fundamental interest, their national security, indeed perhaps their national existence”.
The United Nations has the principal responsibility to seek a solution not only as the Chief International Agency for maintenance and enforcement of peace but also as an organ which was asked by India and Pakistan to intervene in the conflict and which has committed its prestige and authority to its solution through its numerous resolutions. It cannot tolerate a prolonged flaunting of its decisions without dissipating completely its influence”. A possible fresh start should take into careful consideration of at least the spirit of original resolutions of the Security Council and the UNCIP”. His prophetic warning is, “if the solution of the conflict is not achieved, India and Pakistan indeed the whole free world may reap the harvest of short-sightedness and indecision of unpredictable dimensions”. Quotation from Danger in Kashmir, by Josef Karbel PP 351-353. In 1954 when Josef Karbel wrote the book India and Pakistan were not the nuclear powers The issue was dangerously explosive then, it is more certain today.
When the demand for the partition became too vibrant, strong and unavoidable, the British and Hindus joined heads and hands to eke out a partition plan which could produce a moth-eaten and truncated Pakistan. The division of Bengal and Punjab with a passage to Kashmir made Pakistan weak, problem ridden, hopefully, untenable and unviable. Kashmir 84% Muslim majority State was occupied through fraud and force. The occupation of Kashmir gave control over the Western Rivers to India and also the Eastern Rivers (Ravi, Beas and Satluj) were given to India through Indus Water Treaty. Such a disposal of rivers was unprecedented. It was totally inimical.
For occupation of Kashmir a very sound conspiracy was evolved: Lord Mountbatten chaired the proceedings and implemented the plan. Mr. VP Menon (Congressman) worked as secretary of partition affair and Mr. Iyer another Hindu as secretary to the Boundary Commission under Radcliff.
The princely states had to accede to one of the two Dominions subject to two conditions: according to the wishes of the people and geographical contiguity of the area. Both these binding conditions were set at naught. Another most important and vital fact was the will of the people which was also buried under the events created by Mountbatten. Majority (sixteen out of twenty-one) members of the Kashmir Legislative Assembly in a formal resolution (19 July 1947) decided to accede to Pakistan – this declaration came forty-five days after the announcement of the partition plan and twenty five days before the transfer of power. This popular voice of people was stifled and through a conspiracy Sheikh Abdullah was taken out of jail to help India to stage a stooge in favour of accession to India. Mountbatten and Congress leaders headed for Kashmir to arrange release of Sheikh Abdullah whereas Quaid-e-Azam was barred to visit Kashmir. Mountbatten personally warned the Maharaja not to declare the accession before 15 August – the date of transfer of the power. When Mahatma Gandhi and Mountbatten made Sheikh Abdullah release possible (on 30 September) the Sheikh moved to Delhi on 20 October to be in time to enable India to invade Kashmir as Maharaja and his PM Ram Chand Kak were not in favour of accession to India – the Maharaja was working to retain independence. Initiative was snatched from Maharaja, Abdullah played in Nehru’s hands. By that time the people of Poonch and Mirpur had driven Maharajas forces to the bed of Pir Panjal. To save the people from genocide tribal Lashkars also joined in. The Maharaja mad an escape to Jamu. India finding an opportunity launched its army into Kashmir…it was an invasion of an independent territory – hence no accession. When India took the case to UNO she asked for an amicable settlement under chapter 7 of UNO. She begged for the cease-fire and offered plebiscite as the solution. Then she dodged all the efforts to settle the problem. UN became inactive or least concerned till it thought of dropping the issue from the active agenda (1996). By this time US and UK the sponsors of resolutions branded UN resolutions as outdated and the plebiscite out of question. They desired that issue be settled by meaningful dialogue between India and Pakistan; Kashmiris being the central party. Knowing Indian aim, the great powers left the ball with the aggressor, the usurper, the frauding party. It is a pity that the issue of life and death of 140 million people was treated so callously or willfully relegated to placate India. Pakistan had played good games for USA but it was subjected to severest restrictions resulting into the poorest state of defence – preparedness – the modern equipment was denied and other countries were also put under advice not to sell, nuclear reactors denied and teasing sessions continued on MII from China. Naturally it was meant to weaken Pakistan’s spine to submit to India and live under her wings…and ultimately lose the identity, sovereignty and the ideology the basic source of inspiration of Pakistanis.
Side effects of Kashmir Dispute – Flash Point
Kashmir the beauty spot of the world now in crossfire presents a picture of destruction of lives and property of locals by the Indian forces. India claims to have the right over the land therefore she has the authority and power to destroy the people. One wonders how far UN, US, UK and others in the world have fallen to a stage of such an apathy that they would not even try to stop the genocide.
India took the case to UNO herself requesting for the cease-fire and offering the plebiscite as the solution. India has gone back on commitment – she is being shielded by the US, UK and Russia; the permanent members of the Security Council who had supported the UN Resolutions of 13 Aug 1948 and 5 January 1949. The problem has become insoluble because of failure of UN to implement its resolutions and reorientation of US policy.
When Rubin of the state department sys in a manner that even if the last Kashmiri goes down, US will keep developing better relations with India, it will be quite natural to expect even sane and sober people getting desperate due to willfully imposed injustice and oppression only to curb the right of people to live, to speak, to exercise their right of self-determination. The occupation army is being aided by the Western powers. The outburst of genuinely felt anger can give real meaning to the flash point in Kashmir.
It is a matter of shame for the civilised world to buy a fraud: the claim of accession…the instrument of the accession being nowhere to be seen: the Indian press had reported the loss of it. Would the world of today and in this age of reason accept the manner in which one man the Hindu Maharaja is stated to have given away fourteen/fifteen million (1999) people against their wishes to the hostile community of Hindus? Will it not be the revival of slaves markets of ancient centuries?
Having proved that India had occupied Kashmir through Fraud and Force and there being a collusion of hostile forces and powers, we have to rise in self-defence. Pakistan and APHC the representative political force must take up the case with ICJ and UNO to help vacate the aggression, to carryout war crime trials of Indian leaders and commanders for genocide of people of Kashmir and provide immediate protection to the people of Kashmir.
Facing the end of reason and rush of unreason, will Pakistanis live to see the fraud marring their destiny?
NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. Kashmiris Fight for Freedom Yusuf Saraf 743
2. Liberty or Death French Patrick 279
3. Nehru Stanley Walpert 358
4. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 306
5. A Prime Minister Remembers Francis William 21
6. Balraj Madhok 66
7. Freedom at Midnight Larry Collins & D Lapierrs 119
8. Know the Hindus Larry Collins & D Lapierrs Jews of Subcontinent Mian Amin-ud-Din 21
9. Know the Hindus 22
10. Continent of Circe Nirad C Chaudry 107
11. Nehru Stanley Walpert 316
12. Nehru Stanley Walpert 313-314
13. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 206
14. Nehru Stanley Walpert 85
15. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 233 Liberty or Death Patrick French 187
16. Continent of Circe Nirad C Chaudry 117
17. Continent of Circe Nirad C Chaudry 39
18. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 270
19. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 25
20. Liberty or Death Patrick French 384
21. Nehru Stanley Walpert 390
22. Liberty or Death Patrick French 372
23. Nehru Stanley Walpert 424
24. Nehru’s Broadcast All India Radio 2 Nov. 1947
25. Nehru’s address to Indian Parliament 12 Feb. 1951
26. Nehru’s Statement The Statesman 9 Jul. 1951
27. Nehru’s Statement Amrit Bazar Patrika 2 Jul. 1951
28. Nehru Stanley Walpert 442
29. Danger in Kashmir Josef Karbel 128
30. Two Nation and Kashmir Lord Birdwood 203
31. Nehru Stanley Walpert 448
32. Speech UN Krishna Menon June 23-27
33. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 270
34. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 251
35. Liberty or Death Patrick French 187
36. Liberty or Death Patrick French 384
37. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 321
38. Two Nation and Kashmir Lord Birdwood 200
39. Kashmiris Fight for Freedom Yusuf Saraf 162
40. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 324
41. While the Memory Serve Sir Francis Tuker 390
42. India Pakistan and Kashmir Dispute Dr. Robert G Wirsing 2
43. Liberty or Death Patrick French 357
44. Nehru Stanley Walpert 390
45. Emergence of Pakistan Ch. M. Ali 300
46. Integration of India States V.P. Menon 399-400
47. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 416
48. Liberty or Death Patrick French 373
49. Research Paper Birth of Tragedy Alastair Lamb 6-7
50. Liberty or Death Patrick French 36
51. Kashmir in Cross Fire Victoria Schefield 293
52. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 170
53. Jinnah of Pakistan Stanley Walpert 343
54. Danger in Kashmir Josef Karbel 329
55. Danger in Kashmir Josef Karbel 350
56. Danger in Kashmir Josef Karbel 351
57. Danger in Kashmir Josef Karbel 351-353