The Role of Ulama and Mashaikh in the Pakistan Movement
A. Sattar Khan
A Large Number of celebrated personalities appear on the mental horizon for the role played by them in the Pakistan Movement. Prominent Ulama and Mashaikh amongst them are Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Allama Shafi, Maulaha Muhammad Ibrahim Sialkoti, Pir Ghulam Mujaddid Sirhindi, Amin-ul-Hasnant Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif, Pir Sahib Zakori Sharif, Pir Jamat Ali Shah, Maulana Sanaullah Amritsari and a host of others.
The history of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent is replete with participation of Ulama and Mashaikh in politics in order to defend the cause of faith. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi did not hesitate to confront with the royal authority and put his life at stake to light the torch for regeneration of Islamic spirit. It was kept alive in the through the movement started by Shah Waliullah. In the first half of the 19th century Shah Abdul Aziz intensified it and made it widespread. Later, Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail converted it into Jihad Movement for the establishment of an Islamic state in the subcontinent. They fought against the Sikh rulers of the Punjab and were martyred, fighting valiantly in the valley of Balakot of spreading the will of Allah.
The components and followers of the martyrs recognized their ranks and led the Muslim against the British troops in the war of 1857. And even after the war, under inspiration of the teaching of Shah Waliullah, they continued armed resistance against the British rulers from the tribal territories.
With the beginning of the struggle for location of the country, the concept of separate Muslim nationhood started fascinating the Muslims on account of the deep-rooted prejudices of Hindus and growing differences. The Muslims were mentally occupied with future possibilities. For example, what type of government would be established in India? And in that type of government what would be the status of the Muslims? With the passage of time this question had become seriously important and dominated minds of the Indian Muslims. But the Congress leadership always tried to temporize the matter by saying that after departure of the British it would be settled amicably, but first of all they insisted on the ouster of the British. The Hindu leaders wanted to leave the matter unsettled as they knew that after independence, being in absolute majority, they would be in a dominant position to have the Muslims at their mercy. But the Muslims never tolerated to be dominated. They always wished to have a respectable place in the future set-up of the country with due respect and regard for their legitimate rights and religious sentiments.
After the War of 1857 and termination of the Muslim rule, some of the Ulama had established educational institutions for religious teaching in order to enable the younger generations to protect the cause of the faith and solve day to day problems of life in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. They had also started underground movements for the political awakening of the Muslims.
The second decade of the 20th century saw the World War One. At the end of the war the Indian Muslim had to launch to Khilafat Movement. The insinuation of Khilafat, which was held in the highest esteem by the Muslims, was associated with the Sultan of Turkey who was regarded as a symbol of the unity of the Islamic world. After the end of the war, Turkey, which was an ally of Germany, was being meted out humiliating treatment by the Allies led by Great Britain. The British attitude against Turkey outraged sentiments of the Indian Muslims. They started Khilafat Movement under Majilis-i-Khilafat which became an effective organization of the Muslims. Almost all the prominent Ulama like Maulana Mauhammad Ali Jauhar, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi, Maulana Abdul Bari of Farangi Mahal, Sayyed Sulaman Nadvi and Maulana Hussain Hussain Ahmad Madni joined it.
Although the Ulama, by that time, had been taking part in the national politics through the “Silk Handkerchief Movement” Tehrik-i-Hijrat” and “Majlis-i-Khilafat” yet they did not have any organized platform from which they could participate in the political affairs of the country in a systematic way. To meet this need the Ulama of Deoband fromed an organization, Jamiatul-Ulama-i-Hind in 1919. As a result of it the Khilafat Movement became widespread and popular amongst the Muslims masses. The period of Kilafat Movement was also an era of Hindu-Muslim unity though it was short-lived. During these stormy days both the communities, Hindus and Muslims, were dominated by the only thought of driving out the British from India. And, in order to achieve this objective the Jamaitul-Ulama-i-Hind decided to cooperate with the Congress. The issue became controversial; eventually the Jamiatul Ulama-i-Hind was split into two faction. The pro- Congress faction of the Ulama was held by Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni, the well-know theologian of Deoband. They launched a campaign of propaganda against the Muslim League. In order to counter the propaganda of the ‘nationalist’ Ulama effectively, the Council of All-India Muslim League passed the following resolution in its meeting held in Delhi on 4 December 1938.
“In every province and district where the spiritual influence of the Ulama could be utilized for the purpose, brief Fatwas and manifestoes should be issued on behalf of the Ulama in which the Muslims should be warned against joining the Congress; and the disadvantages from religious point of view of any association with the Congress should be clearly and emphatically explained to them. These Fatwas should be published under the authority of the All-India Muslim League through the agency of the local League in the language of each province or district.”
After the passage of Lahore Resolution, the Indian Muslims had become so keen on establishing an Islamic state that the U.P. Muslim League appointed a committee of the leading Ulama and prominent thinkers of Islam in 1940 to prepare a draft of the system and government for it. The committee consisted such a galaxy of stars as Sayyed Sulaiman Nadvi, Maulana Abu Aala Mauddudi, Maulana Azad Subhani and Maulana Abdul Majid Darya Abadi.
The anti-Congress faction of the Ulama disassociated itself from the Jamiat and remained aloof from the Congress movement. They became supporters of the Two-Nation Theory. Their support was a great source of strength for the League. When in 1942 the Muslim League declared that the state and government in Pakistan would be based on the tenets of the Quran and Sunnah, the anti-Congress faction of the Ulama decided to support it. They played a dynamic role in Pakistan Movement and worked hard to make it popular amongst the Muslim masses. The prominent names amongst the pro-League Ulama were Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Maulana Zafar Ahmad Usmani, Mufti Muhammad Shafi.
Now the need of an organization of the pro-League Ulama was seriously felt in order to muster support for the Pakistan Movement in an organized manner. Therefore, in a big gathering of the Ulama, in October 1945 at Muhammad Ali Park Calcutta, Jamiatul Ulama-i-Islam was formed which proved a big landmark in the struggle for the establishment of Pakistan.
With the passage of time some more Ulama started leaving the Jamiat-ul-Ulama-i-Hind to join the Pakistan Movement. The Jamiatul-Ulama-i-Islam established its branches all over the country and the Ulama started supporting the cause of Pakistan very enthusiastically. By that time another prominent theologian, Mufti Muhammad Shafi had joined the Jamiatul-Ulama-i-Islam and became a member of its Central Working Committee. He rendered an all out support to the cause of Pakistan.. Mufti Muhammad Shafi started a crusade with pen in favour of Pakistan and wrote a number of pamphlets. He had a conviction that the establishment of Pakistan was inevitable. Besides contributing through his writings, he made extensive tours of the subcontinent to motivate the Muslims in favour of Pakistan. His speeches and statements took Muslims by storm everywhere he went. His great efforts to counter-influence the Congress in the N.W.F.P. on the eve of the referendum of 1947 are unforgettable.
The present discussion would remain incomplete without mentioning the invaluable services of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi for the cause of Pakistan. He was an extremely revered theologian with a large number of devotees all over the country. In the beginning, he was against the stand of Muslims League; but it is said that he was guided in a vision to support the cause of Pakistan. Since then he became an ardent supporter of the League. According to him, the Quaid-i-Azam was a staunch Muslim with an irrevocable faith in Islam. He sent a delegation to Patna in 1938 where the All-India Muslim League was holding its session. It was a golden opportunity for the delegation to meet, discuss and exchange views with the League leadership. The delegates were immensely impressed by the integrity, candidness and sincerity of the Quaid-i-Azam which left an indelible mark on the. Maulana Asharf Ali Thanvi laid a strong emphasis on the need for a powerful Muslim organization which he believed was very essential under the circumstances. He advised the Muslims to join the League and strengthen it. He was out and out a supporter of demand of Pakistan and considered it inevitable to preserve and protect the national entity of the Muslims. In 1938, a couple of years before the passage of the Lahore Resolution, he foretold the creation of Pakistan. Although he was not alive on the eve of the creation of Pakistan. Yet the eminent (Ulama trained by him were here the serve and guide the nascent state.
During the crucial elections of 1945-46 the Jamiatul-Ulama-i-Hind declared to support the Congress which had rejected the demand for Pakistan and stood for a united India. During this critical juncture Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani along with his companions lent unflinching support to the League and pleaded in favour of the Quaid-i-Azam agaist all opposition which had been direct by the nationalist Ulama. He publically announced his complete and irrevocable faith in the honesty and integrity of the Quaid-i-Azam. He exhorter the Muslims to vote for the League which was struggling hard to carve out an independent sovereign Muslim state on the global map. He also warned the common Muslims against the designs of the Congressite Ulama.
During these elections the League had a very tough time in the N.W.F.P. The “Khan Brothers” were in power in the province. They won the elections at the barest margin and succeeded in forming the provincial government headed by Dr. Khan Sahib. This position continued in the province till the partition of the subcontinent. And on the eve of the partition when the historic referendum was held in the N.W.P. the Ulama and Mashaikh put the whole weight of their support and force in favour of the League. The Quaid-i-Azam specially sent Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani to the N.W.F.P in support of the League. He along with Mufti Muhammad Shafi, Pir Sahib of Mnaki Sharif and Pir SaHib of Zakori Sharif intensified the activities in support of the Muslim League and turned the tables of the provincial political on the “Khan Brothers” despite a huge propaganda machinery of the Congress backed by its unlimited financial resources. They conducted stormy tours of distant parts of the province and tribal areas to mobilize support of the Muslim massas for Pakistan; and successfully explained to them the rationale of Pakistan’s demand and ideology. They also portrayed a picture of the coming events and destiny of the Muslim community in a united India dominated by the caste-ridden and prejudiced Hindu majority. People soon realized the truth and gravity of the situation. Now, they could easily perceive overt and covert dangers of living in a Hindu-dominated subcontinent. Thus, the Ulama and the Mashaikh prepared the Muslim population with a pragmatic approach towards Pakistan where they would be able to breathe in Islamic atmosphere and where Islam, in its pristine glory, would be revived. Their earnest efforts succeeded in paving the way for a landslide victory of the League in the referendum. “The referendum was held on 6-17 July and 289, 244 votes were caste in favour of joining the new Constituent Assembly as against 2,874 for continuing with the existing Indian Constituent Assembly. It was resounding victory of the League against its arch rivals and anti-Pakistan forces. The Ulama and Mashaikh played a stupendous role in this victory, which in worth writing in letters of gold in the annals of the struggle for Pakistan.
Another referendum of the same type was to be held in Sylhet which was under the personal influence of Maulana Hussain Ahamd Madni who usually passed the holy month of Ramzan in Sylhet. This area, in fact, was under the deep influence of pro-congress Ulama. Their influence could only be counted through the Ulama of the same stature. Moreover, in Sylhet, “The Muslims were faced with a serious handicap, for though they formed 60.7% of the population they held only 54.27% votes of the total electorial role. The Muslim electorates were also handicapped economically. They were generally poor, whereas the Congress had the backing of the rich people and big businessmen. The Muslim League’s choice to counter the influence of pro-congress Ulama fell on Maulana Zafar Ahmad Umsnai who was in Dacca in these days. The Maulana was very popular amongst the Muslim of Bengal and Assam on account of his learning, piety and candidness. He toured Sylhet and explained the importance and need of Pakistan to the Mulisms; worked hard to organize them and generated their support for Pakistan. Thus, the systematic and organized campaign of the Leauge, in which Maulana Zafar Ahmad Usmani along with other Ulama played a vital role, resulted in a decisive victory for her. “The voting was 239,619 for separation and joining East Bengal and 181, 041 against separation.
The participation of the Ulama in the Pakistan Movement strengthened Islamic identity of the Muslims; gave a new turn to the movement and converted it into a battle of choice between Islam and Hinduism. Besides, the Ulama addressed mammoth publich meetings, oriented them ideologically; countered political influence of the opponents and whenever needed they also issued Fatwas in favour of the League. But the Mashaikh, with the exception of a few, did not indulge in active politics. They instructed their followers and devotees silently and motivated them for the cause of Pakistan. Every word said by the Maishaikh to their followers was obeyed as law. The splendid services, thus, rendered by the Mashaikh and Pirs of Alipur, Golra, Sial, Taunsa, Mohra Chaura, Manki and Zakori would always illuminate annals of the Pakistan Movement.,
The Muslims owe a lot to the services of Pir Jamm’at Ali Shah for his spiritual and political guidance. He had millions of followers in the country. He was a staunch supporter of Aligarh Movement for which he contributed one lakh ruppees. After the passage of Lahore Resolution, he gave all out support to the Quaid-i-Azam and continued making sterling efforts for the achievement of Pakistan. He made intensive and extensive tours of the country to generate support for the Muslim League. He advised his followers to work for the League strenuously; and emphatically declared that he would not lead the funeral prayers of any devotee if he had not participated in the Pakistan Movement in any capacity. Pir Jama’at Ali Shah fervently supported the Muslim League during the elections of 1945-46. He had to make very hard efforts to win support of the All-India Sunni Conference for the Cause of Pakistan. When the nationalist Ulama criticized the Quaid-i-Azam at the Sunni Conference in 1946, Pir Jama’at Ali Shah strongly defended him by saying. “Think of Jinnah Sahib whatever you like, but I say that Jinnah Sahib is “Wali Allah.” Pir Sahib was awarded the title of Ameer-i-Millat for providing a magnetic lead to Masjid Shaheed Ganj Movement. On the eve of referendum in the N.W.F.P. in 1947, he also visited the province and mustered support for the League. While presiding over a session of the Jamiatul-Ulma-i-Islam, Punjab, Pir Jama’at Ali Shah said:” Both the Government and the Congress should carefully note that the Muslims have shaken off their lethargy; now they stand awakened, they have determined their goal___ Pakistan, and no power on this earth can make them budge from their demand of Pakistan.
Pir Sahib Manki sharif was a valiant freedom fighter and a strong supporter of the League. He joined the Muslim League in 1945 to counter Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’s anti-Pakistan activities. He attended the Sunni Conference held at Banaras an delivered and inspiring speech in support of Pakistan. The invaluable services which he rendered to the League during the referendum in the N.W.F.P. would never be forgotten. He was a devoted and sincere companion of the Quaid-i-Azam. In the Conference of Mashaikh of the N.W.F.P. and the Punjab, held at Peshawar on October 19, 1945, a resolution was passed through which complete loyalty to the League and an irrevocable faith in the Quaid-i-Azam was expressed. On this occasion Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif laid strong emphasis on unity among the Muslims, which, he said, was a dire need of the time. Moreover, he urged upon the Muslims to make untiring efforts for the achievement of Pakistan where they would live with dignity and honour. He made it incumbent upon all the Muslims to join and strengthen the Muslim League which was working for the welfare of the Muslims and the great cause of Islam. On May 30, 1946, while presiding over All-Pakistan Conference in Bannu, Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif exhorted the Muslims that, “If the League decides to launch a movement, they should be prepared to participate in it. He added that the Muslim were passing through a very critical period of their existence; therefore, they should be prepared to undergo every kind of hardship they would have to confront.”
During the peak days of the election campaign, Shamas-ul-Ulama Khawaja Hasan Nizami of Taunsa issued the following statement:
“Pir Ghulam Mohyi-ud-Din, Sajjada Nashin of Hazarat Pir Mehar Ali Shah has ordered his followers to side with the Muslim League. The Jamat’ul-Ulama-i-Islam of Calcutta has also issued a Fatawa exhorting all Muslims to support the League, and he who does not abide by it would be sinful.”
On January 11, 1946, Maulana Fazal Shah Sajjada Nashin of Jalalpur appealing to the Muslim community said: “The interest of the Millat demands from every Muslim to vote for the Muslim League.” Syed Mohyi-ud-Din Lal badshah, Pir Sahib of Mukhad, also announced to join the Muslim League. In a letter to the Quaid-i-Azam, setting aside all his personal and political differences, he offered him his unflinching services and relentless support to the League.
The descendants of Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani played a significant role in promotion the cause of Pakistan movement in Sindh. Hazrat Ghulam Mujaddid Sirhindi, a descendant of Hazart Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani, was a renowned scholar of Islamics. He had taken part in the Khilafat Movement and courted arrest along with Ali Brothers in Karachi. He aligned himself with the Quaid-i-Azam in his mission for achieving an independent state for the Muslims and amalgamated his society “Jamait-ul-Mashaikh” with All-India Muslim League. Another organization of the Mashaikh in Sindh, Anjuman-i-Ihya-i-Islam, too, followed suit and merged itself in the League on the call of the Quaid-i-Azam.
Another celebrated personality from Sindh, who rendered Yeoman service to the cause of Pakistan, was Shaikh Abdul Majeed Sindhi. He was born in a Hindu family in a small village near Thatta. He abhorred the Hindu polytheistic practices from the very childhood and was inclined to monotheistic practices and study of Islamic teaching. He embraced Islam at an early age; after that he became a staunch Muslim and worked for the welfare of the Indian Muslims.
Sheikh Abdul Majeed Sindhi was a prolific writer and the used his sharp pen against Hindu money-lender, Sindhi waderas and the British. He was an ardent supporter of the Pakistan Movement. He is credited with drafting a tentative resolution which was adopted in the Karachi Conference of the Muslim League wherein a separate homeland in the subcontinent was envisaged.
Maulana Sanaullah and Pir Abdur Rehman Maghfuri were also revered persons amongst the Ulama and Mashaikh who rendered tremendous services to the cause of Pakistan in Sindh. They hailed from the Punjab. These examples provide enough evidence of the stupendous role played by the Ulama and Mshaikh in Sindh to champion the cause of Pakistan.
The entire Muslim India was shocked when a murderous attack was made on the Quaid-i-Azam in July 1943. It shook the Ulama and Mashaikh too, who felt very much concerned about the Quaid-i-Azam, as he was very near and dear to them. Maulana Muhammad Ali Islamil Ghaznavi sent a message of felicitations to the Quaid-i-Azam on escaping this fatal attempt on his life; condemned this timid act and expressed his deep gratitudes to Almighty Allah of saving his life. He sent some gifts to Qauid-i-Azam as a token of his love and regards for him. Pir Jama’at Ali Shah, at that time was in Hyderabad Daccan. On hearing the news of this unfortunate incident he sent his disciple, Bakshi Mustafa Khan, as his personal envoy to Bombay in order to inquire about the Quaid’s health. He also sent a letter and some gifts for him which included a copy of the Holy Quran, a rosary and a carpet for offering prayers. In reply to his letter, the Quaid-i-Azam expressed his thanks to the Pir Sahib and wrote: “Since the blessings and good wishes of the saintly personalities like you are with me, I am bound to succeed.” The Pir Sahib had insisted on him to continue with his mission despite the difficulties; the Quaid-i-Azam replied that he would never budge an inch from his mission howsoever difficult it might be and would continue serving the Muslims.
With the introduction of democracy in British India, election was always keenly contested in the subcontinent. The elections of 1945-46 were held at a very crucial time and these were to influence the Muslim demand for Pakistan which was going to reshape the map of India. In those days, the Punjab was a bastion of the Unionist Party of feudal lords who had a firm grip over the provincial politics. Here, the League was facing a hard task and its strength was put to a real test. But thanks to the endeavors’ of the Ulama and Pirs who came to help the Muslim League in the crucial battle of election. They joined the election dual with the entire weight of their resources and influences in support of the Muslim League and played no insignificant role in its success.
In order to express their strong commitment to the Pakistan Movement, the Ulama and Mashaikh from all over the country issued a common poster bearing their Fatwa which clearly stated that the struggle for Pakistan was a battle between Islam and Kufr; therefore, it was essential for every Muslim to vote for the League. The poster was signed by the Pirs of Manki and Zakori and Sajjada Nashins of Ajmer, Kaliar, Sirhindi, Golra and the Sharine of Hazrat Nizam-ud-Din Aulia. Such electioneering literature was widely circulated and the messages were transmitted to every Muslim home in urban and rural areas by the League worker. Prominent among those who shouldered and the messages were transmitted to every Muslim home in urban and rural areas by the League workers. Prominent among those who shouldered his responsibility were Abu Saeed Anwar, Maulana Abdul Sattar Khan Niazi, Zaheer Niaz Begi, Maulana Ghaulam Rasool Janndialwi, Ghulam Nabi Bhullar, Malik ghulam Nabi and Mirza Abdul Hameed. Besides the League coordinated the support of these Pirs and Ulamas by publishing and circulating a large number of these Pirs and Ulama by NAWA-I-WAQAT and in other newspapers were published from Lahore. David Gilmaatin writes; “Their support highlighted the religious foundations of the League’s position.
The miracle of the leadership of the Quaid-i-Azam was that all the religious leaders set aside their differentiations of sects and beliefs. They were all simple Muslims, valiant fighters of the battle for Pakistan and comrades of the Quaid-i-Azam. In the Ulama conference held at Islamia College, Lahore, in January 1946, inspiring sights of unity and homogeneity were witnessed. The prominent religious leaders of different schools and sects sat together. In their speeches and messages they, even expressed unity of thought and purpose. Standing united they had gathered so powerful a momentum that both the Congress and Congressite Ulama were lying tottered before them. The Unionists were outclassed and the British rulers were completely bamboozled.
The mode of life and its social structure is deeply rooted in the brathari system in the rural Punjab. The provincial politics were not immune from it. In fact they were deeply embedded In this system. The religious leaders urged upon their followers to commit themselves strictly to Pakistan without caring for the tribal or brathari loyalties. The Sajjada Nashin of Ajmer appealing to the Punjab Muslim said: “Your vote is held in trust for the community. No question of caste or conflicts of bratharies should influence you at the present moment. Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan, uncle of an influential religious leader, reiterated the same sentiments. It is our duty, “he said, “to erase the disputes of families and bratharies, “and to keep before us at this time only the honour of Islam.
The Pirs had stepped into the political arena in 1945 and early 1946 to fulfil their commitments to the community in a world where brathari and tribe shaped local, social and political organizations. Many of them turned the west Punjab; smashed the idols of brathari system and mustered support for Pakistan. That was enough to change the direction of political wind in favour of the Muslim League. The son of Pir Jama’at Ali Shah toured Jhelum district in December 1945 and assured Muslim votes for the League.
In Gujjar Khan, a tehsil of Rawapindi district, the situation was much the same. The Unionist workers reported that a tour of the brother and son of Pir Fazl Shah of Jalalupur had undermined their position.
The Muslim League captured 75 out of 86 Punjab Muslim seats while the Unionist suffered an ignominious defeat and had been reduced to an insignificant group of 20. Four Unionists later joined the League raising its strength to 79 and six went over the independent and other benches, leaving the Unionists with a petty following of ten. David Gilmartin says that, “In areas like Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts, where touring by Pirs was intense, the League won over 70 percent of rural Muslim vote. This glorious victory of the League was coupled with a clean sweep of the Muslim urban constituencies too. The Muslims in the rural areas said good bye to local and tribal consideration which provided basis for rural politics and made the league’s grand triumph easy. The Quaid-i-Azam’s strategy was to challenge the Unionist Party for local control within political structure of the rural Punjab where he wanted to build a base for Pakistan. “In building its base for Pakistan in the rural Punjab, the League dramatized its claim to speak for a self-conscious Muslim community that transcended the local identities around which rural politics had been built.” The role of the Pirs was very vital and significant in this process. The rural Muslims looked to the Pirs for religious leadership and found a powerful political model in them who presented Pakistan as a symbol of the aspirations of the Muslim nation. According to David Gilmartin; “Casting their individual votes for Pakistan came to signify, for much identification with the broader Islamic community. Thus, the rural Punjab where politics were firmly controlled by the feudal lords received a big set-back and the League spreaheaded by the celebrated religious leaders who uprooted the powerful Unionist Party. For this great victory the Muslim League owes a lot to the titanic efforts and spiritual influence of the Ulama and Mashaikh who completely changed the course of political tide, made the tough task of the Quaid-i-Azan easier and made the ultimate creation of Pakistan inevitable.
- Syed S. Sharifuddin Pirzada, Foundaion of Pakistan – All India Muslim League Documents, vol.iii 1906-1947, Royal Book company, Karachi, 1990, p. 286.
- Chirag-i-Rah: Nazaria -i-Paksitan Number, Karachi , 1960, p.233
- Nawa-i-Waqt, Lahore, October 17, 1982.
- Muin-ud-Din Aqeel, Mausalmanon ki Jidddo Juhid-i-Azadi, Maktaba-i-Tamir-i-Insaniat, Lahore, 1981, p.195.
- Ibid., p. 195
- Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, The Struggle for Pakistan, University of Karachi, 1969.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Creation of Pakistan, Publisher United Ltd., Lahore. 1976 p.354
- Ibid., P. 354
- Nawai-i-Waqt, Lahore, October 20, 1982.
- Gilmartin, David, Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988, p. 216.
- Raees Ahmad Jafery Nadvi, Quaid-i-Azam Aur Un ka Ehd, Maqbool Academy, Lahore, 1966, p. 405.
- Inqilab, Lahore February 9, 1946, cf. Muhammad Hanif Shahid, Islam Aur Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore, 1976, p. 145.
- Raees Ahmad Jaferi Nadvi, op. cit., p. 404.
- Muhammad Hanif Shahid, op. cit., p. 143.
- Ibid, pp. 144-145.
- Nawa-i-Waqt, Lahore, October 20, 1982.
- Ibid., October 23, 1982.
- Op. cit., p. 215
- Gilmartin, David, op. cit., pp. 216-217.
- Ibid., p. 217
- Ibid., p. 217-18
- Ibid., P 221.
- Ibid., p. 221