Legacy and Personality of Quaid-i-Azam
Iqtidar Karamat Cheema
The purpose of this chapter is to determine what legacy Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah has left for his followers and in what ways this legacy has influenced the shaping of Pakistan. Pakistan started her independent national life under a leader of extraordinary ability and prestige. The emergence of Pakistan was the triumph of a democratic idea. The faith of the people in Pakistan had made the idea possible, and their free acceptance of the leadership of the Quaid-i-Azam enabled them to achieve it. The Quaid-i-Azam had resources of his own spirit and the trust of the people in his leadership. Almost any constitutional, political, or social innovation that Mr. Jinnah chose to ask for during those early days, his people would have accepted readily.
In concrete terms Quaid’s most outstanding and enduring legacy is Pakistan itself. By any standards it is a monumental achievement. Pakistan, by its very existence, even without any blueprints and internationally established institutions, has determined and shaped the destiny of millions of Quaid’s followers. His legacy, therefore, is primarily to be inferred from his political activity leading to the achievement of Pakistan.
The Quaid-i-Azam had a very clear idea of the basic principles on which to build up Pakistan. The most important of these were; the supremacy of Islam and democracy, liberty, economic development, social justice and Islamic socialism which emphasizes equality and brotherhood of mankind. These principles are his invaluable legacy. We can prosper and make Pakistan strong only by practicing the Quaid’s ideals.
The Quaid-i-Azam always mentioned that the Muslims had achieved Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the Islamic principles. The Quaid-i-Azam in his numerous speeches before and after independence made it abundantly clear that the superstructure of the new state could be raised only on the foundations of the Islamic ideology. In 1944, when the Pakistan Movement in full swing, he declared the purpose underlying the movement in unmistakable term. He said, “Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but the Muslim ideology means freedom and independence but the Muslim ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as precious gift and treasure and which we hope other will share with us”. Soon after the establishment of Pakistan, in October 11, 1947, he again declared that the creation of a state of our own was a mean to an end and not the end in itself. The idea was that we should have a state in which we would live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find a free play”. In March 26, 1948, he once again highlighted the spirit of the struggle for Pakistan. He said “Brotherhood, equality and fraternity of man – these are all the basic points of our religion, culture and civilization, and we fought for Pakistan because there was a danger of denial of these human rights in the sub-continent”.
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah had a very clear idea of the system of government which he wanted to introduce in Pakistan. He wanted to make Pakistan a real Islamic State. In this respect, he expressed his views many times on appropriate occasions and clarified his concept of an Islamic State which he envisaged for Pakistan. His discussion on this point with the students of the Osmania University, Hyderabad Deccan (India) has become a classical quotation. The Quaid visited the Osmania University in August 1941. The students requested him to explain the concept of the Islamic State which he wanted to establish in the shape of Pakistan. Explaining his viewpoint in this respect, the Quaid said: “The concept of an Islamic State which should always be kept in mind in that in it one has to obey Almighty Allah faithfully. This obedience is through the injunctions and principles of the Holy Quran. In Islam sovereign powers are not vested in a king or the parliament of any particular person (Mukkah) or institution. The injunction of the holy Quran have prescribed the limits of our political and social life. In other words, Islamic government is the rule of the Quranic injunctions and principles. For the establishment of such government, a separate country or a State is a must.”
At the last session of the All India Muslim League at Karachi on 26th December 1943, Mr. Jinnah asked
“What was it that kept the Muslims united as one man, and what was the bedrock and sheet-anchor of the community? “Islam”, he said, and added: “It is the Great Book Quran that is the Sheet-anchor of Muslim India. I am sure that, as we go on and on, there will be more and more of oneness – one God, one Book, one Prophet and one Nation”.
Like a true Muslim the Quaid-i-Azam put heart in his people by reminding them of the lessons of Islam as follows:
“Keep up your morale. Do not be afraid of death. We should face it bravely to save the honor of Islam and Pakistan. There is no better salvation for a Muslim than the death of a martyr for a righteous cause”. In another address, he declared. “Let us lay the foundations of a democracy on the basis of truly Islamic ideals and principles”.
The fact is that the Quaid was a great admirer of Islam. Its tenets as well as its government system, while on the contrary, he was a great critic particularly of the western parliamentary system of government. But what is the spirit and meaning of the western democracy? Theoretically, the western democracy has been generally considered as the government of the people by the people and for the people. But in words of the Quaid western democracy did not exist anywhere in the world in the strict sense of the word.
The Quaid-i-Azam interpreted Islam for people of Pakistan. In his speech to the Bar Association, Karachi, in January 25, 1948, he said, “No doubt there are many people who do not quite appreciate when we talk of Islam. Some of our non-Muslim friends do not quite appreciate when we talk of Islam, Islam is not only a set of rituals, traditions and spiritual doctrines, Islam is a code of every Muslim which regulates his life and his conduct in all aspects, social, political, economic etc. it is based on the highest principles of honor, integrity, fairplay and justice for all”. In reply to the civil Address of the Karachi Corporation, on 25th August, 1947, he again remarked:
“It should be our aim not only to remove fear of all types, but also secure liberty, fraternity and equality as enjoined upon us by Islam”.
Again in a broad-cast in February, 1948, the Quaid-i-Azam declared about the constitution,
“I am sure that it will be of a democratic type embodying the essential principles of Islam….Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy”
The Holy Quran was the Quaid’s source of inspiration and his guidance. It sustained him in the darkest moments of his life. “Why should we worry or be dejected,” he once told Mian Bashir Ahmad, “When we have got to this great Book to guide us”“Its teachings”, he added, “are no restricted to religious and moral issues, it is a comprehensive code of life. A religious social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal, penal code”, he said on a later occasion, “it regulates everything from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life; from the rights of all to those of each individual; from morality to crime, from punishment here to that in the life to come.”
On December 25, 1945, the Quaid-i-Azam saw in a bazaar near the J.J. hospital a huge portrait below that was written “Shahinshah-e-Pakistan Zindabad”. He immediately stopped his car and asked it to be pulled down. Addressing the crowd on the spot, he declared, “Pakistan is going to be a democracy and there is no room for a Shahinshah in Pakistan”.
He never took any decision without consulting the League or his associates. The founder of Pakistan has observed:
“It is my belief that our salvation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great law-giver, the Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him). Let us lay the foundations of our democracy on the basis of Islamic ideals and principles. Our almighty has taught us that our affairs of the State shall be guided by discussion and consultations”.
The Quaid-i-Azam used to say,
“In the indepdent Islamic state we will root out all the remnants of the days of slavery. Our affairs will be managed according to the teachings of Allah and his Prophet”(Peace be upon him). The Quaid-i-Azam believed in democracy and considered that the Muslims had special aptitude for it. He held that Islam was truly democratic in thought, spirit and action and be believed that the only way to run Pakistan true to the traditions of Islam was to have Pakistan as a Democratic Republic
The Quaid-i-Azam lived and died as a democrat. Pakistan of his dream can ill-afford to forget his great love for democratic traditions and institutions. To him democracy was the way of life of the Muslims and through it alone Pakistan could achieve a place of honor, dignity and glory in the country of nations.
Quaid-i-Azam was a lawyer by profession and had been brought up under the discipline of Rule of Law. He believed in Rule of Law rather than the rule of individuals. Consequently democracy was a matter of conviction with him. Although he had shown no preference for either the parliamentary or the presidential form of democracy, his mind was absolutely clear on such basic issues as: the government should be constituted by the directly elected representatives of the people, the fundamental rights of the citizens should be guaranteed and the Judiciary should be independent of the executive.
With this frame of mind, Quaid-i-Azam had approached Islam and discovered his satisfaction that Islamic democracy was founded on the very same on principles which he had upheld throughout his life. He was indeed not an academic expert in Islam and therefore did not care to find out as to how and why the “Ideal” in Islam had been destroyed by the historically “real”. His main concern was re-statement of the principles of Islamic democracy and not of Islam in history.
The Quaid-i-Azam was a man who had a unique gift of constantly feeling the pulse and reading the mind of his people and giving bold, clear and forceful expression to their innermost urges and aspirations. He was anxious to lay down correct precedents and traditions for the growth of a democratic politics in Pakistan. He enjoyed immense prestige, popularity and power. As such he could have done anything; he could have employed extra-constitutional methods and his edicts would have been willingly followed by the people but it is on record that he conducted himself strictly as a constitutional head of the state. He never deviated from democratic convictions. Indeed, he was always anxious to uphold people’s sovereignty against any constitutional ambiguity. There is another instance of his deep regard for constitutional rectitude. It may be recalled that for a few months after the creation of Pakistan the Quaid-i-Azam had continued to be president of the body called All India Muslim League. When it was split up into the Indian Muslim League and Pakistan Muslim League, it was the general desire of the members that the Quaid-i-Azam should continue to be president of the Pakistan Muslim League. But he declined on the ground that as Head of the State he had to look to the interests of all sections and could not associate himself with any political party.
The Quaid-i-Azam was a firm believer in democratic government with all that democracy implies, its political parties, government and opposition, fundamental rights, elections, adult franchise, accountability of the government to people and the right of the people to change the government if it does not fulfill their expectations. Having himself been an uncompromising claim infallibility even for the League-controlled governments in Pakistan.
“I do not claim that ours is a model administration. Far from it. I do not say that our government has, within the few months that we have been in power, been always right. No, far from it, there is plenty of room for improvement in our administration and in those who are Incharge of the government, the Ministers in the provinces and at the centre including itself. We learn, but now I want you to keep your heads up as citizens of a free and independent sovereign state. Praise your government when it deserves, criticize your government when it deserves, but do not go on attacking all the time, indulging in destructing criticism and taking delight in and running down the Ministry or officials”. The Quaid-i-Azam called for reorientation of the outlook on the part of the citizens of the state in order to revolutionize and remodel the past legacies form which they have been victims for more than a century as slave people.
The Quaid-i-Azam had a complete concept of how things should shape themselves in Pakistan in order that it may develop into a truly Muslim democracy. His own life is that highest example of rectitude and right conduct which all of us can follow. But in his speeches he laid down positive principles to guide the conduct both of officials and the public. He had a very subtle but clear conception of the delicate balance of relationship between the government and people of a free state. This is what, he at a public meeting at Chittagong on 26th March, 1948, said, “On the great day, (14th August, 1947), it was not merely Government which came into existence, it meant the birth of a great state and a great nation – one supplementing the other and both existing for each other. I can understand and appreciate the limitations of those amongst us whose minds have not moved fast enough to realize that 15th of August ushered in such a state and such a nation. It is nature for some to thing only in terms of government but the sooner we adjust ourselves to new forces, the sooner our mind’s eye is capable of piercing through the horizons and see the limitless possibilities of our state and our nation, the better for Pakistan. Then and then only it would be possible for each one of us to realize the great ideals of human progress, of social justice, or equality and of fraternity which, on the one hand, constitute the basic causes of the birth of Pakistan, and also the limitless possibilities of evolving an ideal social structure in our state”.
The Quaid-i-Azam was emphatic about the need for change of outlook among officers and government servants in the changed atmosphere of national freedom. In an informal talk to civil officers at Peshawar on 14th August, 1948, he observed, “Everybody should realize that there is a fundamental and vital change of the entire government and the constituent under which we are working. You should try to create an atmosphere and work in such a spirit that everybody gets a fair deal, and justice is done to everybody. And not merely should justice be done but people should feel that justice had been done to them”. The Quaid-i-Azam impressed upon his Government officials that they were the servants of the people and that they expected efficient service from them. Speaking at Sibi, in Baluchistan, on February 14, 1948, he said, among other things: “Gentlemen, Pakistan is now a sovereign state, absolute and unfettered, and the government of Pakistan is in the hands of the people. Until we finally frame our constitution, our provisional constitution is based on fundamental principles of democracy, not bureaucracy”. The Governor-General added: “Work honestly and sincerely and be faithful and loyal to the Pakistan Government. I can assure you that there is nothing greater in this world then your own conscience and, when you appear before God, you can say that you performed your duty with the highest sense of integrity, honesty and with loyalty and faithfulness”.
The Quaid-i-Azam knew very well the dangers to a nascent state of the practice of officials taking interest in politics or being dragged to serve political ends. During his brief tenure as the Governor-General he was at pains to impress upon the civil servants their duty to remain neutral and to refrain from interference or participation in political activity or even to submit to the pressure of politicians in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Quaid-i-Azam laid down a correct code of conduct for the officers and Government servants, and explained the correct role and function of the officials. In his talk to Government officers in Peshawar in April 14, 1948, he emphasized, “You should have no hand in supporting this political party or that political party, this political leader or that political leader – this is not your business. Whichever Government is formed according to the Constitution, and whoever happens to be the Prime Minister or Minister coming into power in the ordinary constitutional course. Your duty is not only to serve that government loyally and faithfully, but, at the same time, fearlessly, maintaining your high reputation, your prestige, your honour and integrity of your service….I wish also to take the opportunity of impressing upon our leaders and politicians in the same way that if they ever try to interfere with you or bring political pressure to bear upon you, which leads to nothing but corruption bribery and nepotism – which is a horrible disease and for which not only your province (N.W.F.P) but others too are suffering – if they try and interfere with you in this way, I say, they are doing nothing but disservice to Pakistan”.
But the more important advice which the Quaid-i-Azam gave to Government servants was with regard to their dealings with the public. IN the course of his address to the officers at Chittagong on 25th March, 1948, he said,
“The second point is that of your conduct and dealings with the people in various Departments, in which you may be: wipe off that past reputation; you are not rulers. You do not belong to ruling class; you belong to the servants. Make the people feel that you are their servants and friends, maintain the highest standard of honour, integrity, justice and fairplay. You do that, people will have confidence and trust in you and will look upon you as friends and well-wishers”.
Quaid-i-Azam was fully aware that the officers had developed a sense of social superiority bordering on arrogance. They had consisted a bureaucracy that ruled and was feared and respected. Quaid-i-Azam, however, wanted to change this mentality. Accordingly he set three ideals before the officers: First, that they should regard themselves as servants of the people and believe in “Service” as their ideal; second, that they should be just and impartial in dealing with the people; and third, that they should not accept political pressure under any circumstances because it eventually led to corruption, bribery, favoritism and nepotism.
Addressing the Gazetted officers at Chittagong on 25th March, 1948, he declared,
“Those days have gone when the country was ruled by the bureaucracy. It is the people’s Government, responsible to the people…. Now that freezing atmosphere must go; that impression of arrogance must go; that impression that you are rulers must go and you must do your best with all courtesy and kindness to try to understand the people”.
In the same speech he said;
I know we are saddled with old legacy, old mentality, old psychology and it haunts our foot-steps but it is up to you now to act as true servants of the people”
The most important point that the Quaid-i-Azam wished to stress was that the old lines of cleavage which divided officials from the public should cease to exist and both should consider themselves complementary parts of the same machinery. If the principles of conduct laid down by the Quaid-i-Azam both for the officials and the people were widely followed Pakistan’s progress towards the goal of an ideal Islamic state would, indeed, be rapid.
One of the distressing features of the developments after the establishment of Pakistan was the rise of feeling of provincialism and sectionalism. The Quaid-i-Azam was deeply concerned about it and considered it the negation of the very principle on which Pakistan was claimed and achieved. He was keenly aware of the difficulties which the geographical separation of East and West Pakistan presented and wanted to forge every instrument of unity between the two wings of Pakistan. Speaking at a public gathering at Dacca on 21st March, 1948, the Quaid-i-Azam warned the Muslims against the dangers of provincialism and stressed the need of welding themselves into a united nation. He said “Let me warn you in the clearest terms of the dangers that still face Pakistan and your province in particular as I have done already. Having failed to prevent, the establishment of Pakistan, thwarted and frustrated by their failure, the enemies of Pakistan have now turned their attention to disrepute the state b y creating a split amongst the Muslims of Pakistan. These attempts have taken the shape principally of encouraging provincialism. As long as you do not throw of this poison in our body politic, you will never be able to weld yourself, mould yourself, galvanize your self into a real true nation….You have got your Central Government where several units are represented. Therefore, if you want to build up yourself into a nation for God’s sake give up this provincialism. Provincialism has been one often curses; and so is sectionalism Shia, Sunni etc.Again he said “Now I ask you to get rid of this provincialism, because as long as you allow this poison to remain in the body-politic of Pakistan, believe me you will never be a strong nation, and you will never be able to achieve what I wish we could achieve”.
Emphasizing the great need for unity, he declared in a reception at Peshawar in April 17, 1948: “It has been my constant endeavor to try to bring unity among the Mussalmans, and I hope that in the great task of reconstruction and building up great and glorious Pakistan, that is ahead of us, you realize that solidarity is now more essential then it ever was for achieving Pakistan, which by the grace of God we have already done….we Mussalmans believe in one God, one Book – the Holy Quran- and one Prophet. So we must stand united as one Nation. You know the old saying that in unity lies strength; united we stand, divided we fall”.
The Quaid-i-Azam was not an ideal dreamer. He believed in practical Polices to achieve the national ideals. His motto was “Unity, Faith and Discipline”. The Quaid-i-Azam advised us, we must sink individualism and petty jealousies and make up our minds to serve the people with honesty and faithfulness. We are passing through a period of fear, danger and menace. We must have faith, unity and discipline”.
The Quaid-i-Azam wanted Pakistan to achieve a place of honour in the world and play a good role in promoting peace and prosperity in the world. He observed,
“If Muslims work ceaselessly with good intentions, honesty and integrity faith and discipline, if disunity, corruption and nepotism do not creep into their actions, then Insha Allah they will rank among the greatest nations of the world…. From their country’s border the rays of progress will sprout forth and lead the whole of Asia towards peace and prosperity. On another occasion he said, “Close up your ranks. Do not let honestly and sincerity fail you: never prefer self-interest to the interest of the nation”.
Time and again, he called upon his people to maintain their unity. In a message to the nation on March 28, 1948, he said,
“Pakistan is the embodiment of the unity of the Muslims nation and so it must remain. That unity we as true Muslims, must jealously guard and preserve. If we begin to think of ourselves as Bengalis, Punjabis, Sindhis, etc., first and Muslims and Pakistanis only incidentally, then Pakistan is bound to disintegrate”.
It is obvious that the people of Pakistan descend from different racial stock, speak different languages, and live in geographically non-contiguous territories. The foundation of this state, therefore, could not possibly be laid on such principles as common race, common language and contiguousness of territory. On these principles there exist numerous groups of people such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathan and Baluchis within Pakistan. The requirements of what is called ‘nationalism’ in the West are matters in Pakistan merely of sympathetically understanding regional aspirations and equitably adjusting the demands for regional autonomy in accordance with the will of the people of several units consisting the federated centre. The real factor which sustain the State of Pakistan is the existence of consciousness among the people of belonging to each other because a large majority of them adheres to a common spiritual aspirations, i.e. faith in Islam it is for the reason that the Quaid-i-Azam proclaimed at a public meeting in Dacca held on 21st March, 1948; “Islam has taught us this and, I think, you will agree with me, for whatever else you may be and whatever you are, you are a Muslim. You belong to a nation now; it does not belong to a Punjabi, or a Sindhi, or a Pathan, or a Bengali; it is yours”. Pakistan however, was claimed and achieved in the name of a hundred million Muslims on the definite and positive plea that the hundred million Muslims of the sub-continent (and not Bengalis, Sindhis, Punjabis etc.) were a separate nation. The spirit of this nationhood provide that lever and the force for the creation and sustenance of Pakistan. The moment this spirit, God forbid goes, Pakistan as Pakistan will not be able to exist and flourish. There is yet time to heed the advice of Quaid-i-Azam and act on it.
Earliers on 25th January, 1948, while addressing the Karachi Bar Association, the Quaid-i-Azam asked the Muslims to banish sectarian from their ranks,
“I want the Muslims to get rid of the disease of provincialism. It was a curse of the Muslims of the sub-continent that they thought in terms of Sindhis, Punjabi, Pathan and Delhi Muslims. What was still worse was that some of the Muslims who had embraced Islam still retained the legacy of the caste system in their social fabric”. By saying this he did not wish to burn the sentiments of the non-Muslim brethren, but only to point out the existence of un-Islamic ways. It was really undesirable that there should be community distinction among Muslims like Khoja, Bohra, Memon a nation can never progress unless it marches in one formation. We are all Muslims and all Pakistani and as citizens of the State it is our duty to make it a glorious, sovereign state in the world”. The Quaid-i-Azam, however, was a great champion of national unity. He wanted the nation to follow the principle of ‘nationalism’. Hence the principle of the ideology of Pakistan as laid down by Quaid-i-Azam is that for Pakistanis, Islam in the basis of their ‘nationalism’.
Pakistan is an ideological state for it claims itself to be Islamic. It is not a ‘theocratic’ state because Islam is essentially a polity and aspires to create a civil society. This point was explained by Quaid-i-Azam in his recorded broadcast on Pakistan to the people of the United States of America in February, 1948. He said,
“In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic state – to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims – Hindus, Christians, and Parsis – but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan”. Quaid-i-Azam correctly interpreted the meaning and significance of Muslim unity and brotherhood which is no barrier to happy relationship and cordial and fruitful cooperation between the Muslims and people of other faiths living as citizens of Pakistan. He proclaimed: Make no mistake: Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those who, of whatever creed are themselves willing and ready, to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan”.
Islam does not recognize the distinction between the ‘spiritual’ and temporal obligations they are not only connected with each other but it is incumbent on every Muslim to constantly endeavor to realize the spiritual values while performing his temporal obligations. Hence, ‘secularism’ is an integral part of Islam and it is for this reason that the Islamic State assimilates the qualities of an ideal ‘secular state’. In the positive sense a ‘Secular State’ means a state which guarantees religious freedom to every citizens and which, without distinction of religion or race, endeavors to promote the material advancement and welfare of all its citizens. The Islamic state of Pakistan, as envisaged by Quaid-i-Azam, embraces the qualities of an ideal ‘Secular’ State. In this sate every citizen is guaranted the right of religious freedom. Sunnis, Shias, Wahabis, and other sects of Islam, Hindus, Christians, Parsis, Budhists and their numerous sects are free to profess their respective personal faiths and be governed by their respective personal codes of law. Islamic theology recognizes a distinction of meanings in the words ‘Mazhab’ and ‘Din’ ‘Mazhab’ means personal faith, view point, or path; whereas ‘Din’ means a body of those universal principles of Islam which are applicable to the entire humanity. Therefore, in this sense, the state of Pakistan does not have any specific ‘Mazhab’, because it is neither founded or nor projects the personal view-points of any particular Islamic sect, but like an ideal ‘Secular State’, to promote the material advancement and welfare of all its citizens without distinction of religion or race, is one of its numerous duties. Thus, in the political sense, irrespective of their religion or race, all Pakistanis are citizens of the State of Pakistan on equal terms. The Quaid-i-Azam believed in democracy for all the people in Pakistan, including the non-Muslims. When he rose to make his first speech in constituent Assembly of Pakistan on August 11, 1947, he forgot all the bitterness of the past. He spoke to the Muslims and the non-Muslims alike; “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state…We are starting in the days when there is no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one state”.
The Quaid-i-Azam was quite certain that one of the most urgent and important tasks that lay before him and his people would be the establishment of communal harmony and mutual trust. Pakistan was to be one nation, to which all citizens might be proud to owe loyalty. He declared his intention to make Pakistan a state founded on complete religious tolerance, and where religion should play not part in matters of politics and administration. Now, I think we should keep that in front of us our ideal and you will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state”.
One would imagine that the importance of these words is so clear. Questions of an ideological kind have, however, been raised, and a considerable controversy have been stripped up. Could it be they ask, that as soon as Pakistan was won the Quaid-i-Azam abandoned the two nations theory and invited all its citizens, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, to work together for the state on the basis of territorial nationalism? And what would be its distinguishing characteristic? Had the two nations theory merely been the scaffolding that was to be discarded once the structure was built?
What is overlooked is that Pakistan came into existence not by conquest but as the result of a negotiated agreement between the representatives of the Hindu and Muslim communities to partition the sub-continent. As explicit and integral part of the agreement was that the minorities in both states would have equal rights and equal protection of law. In that context the Quaid-i-Azam was wholly right in asserting the fundamental principle that “We are all citizens and equal citizens of one state”. It follows that the state must give full protection to “the life, property, and religious beliefs of its subjects and should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people and especially of the masses and the poor”. The practical tasks of statesmanship can be fulfilled only by giving equal rights and equal responsibility to all citizens. Although Quaid-i-Azam had illustrated two fundamental principles of Islamic democracy, namely, equality and freedom of personal faith, a campaign was started against him by his enemies to the effect that he was a nationalist and that he would make Pakistan a secular state. He was very distressed as it appears from the following interview reported in the press on 25th January, 1948. He said that: “he could not understand section of the people who deliberately wanted to create mischief and made propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan would not be made on the basis of Shariat….”The Governor General of Pakistan said that he would like to tell those who are misled – “some are misled by propaganda” – that there was nothing to fear not only for the Muslims but also for the non-Muslims. Yes, indeed, Quaid-i-Azam definitely differed from such conservative minds which dreaded democracy. It was precisely for this reason that he embracing the equalities of an ideal secular, democratic state and at the same time endeavoring to promote the spiritual advancement and welfare of its Muslim citizens. Islamic state can obviously not be a theocracy because there is no priesthood in Islam. Muslims are forbidden to renounce the world and Islam lays down principles as to how they should conduct themselves in their worldly life. Therefore, in the words of Quaid-i-Azam, Islam is not only a set of spiritual doctrines but a code which regulates the life and conduct of a Muslim even in politics and economic and the like.
The opponents of the Islamic state claim that the Quaid-i-Azam’s idea was the modern national secular state. This claim has received added importance in view of its acceptance in the Report of the Court of Enquiry for the Punjab Disturbances of 1953. Quoting from some speeches of Jinnah, the report makes the conclusion,
“The Quaid-i-Azam said that the new State would be a modern democratic state with sovereignty resting in the people and the members of the new nation having equal rights of citizenship regardless of their religion, caste or creed”
It was Quaid-i-Azam’s conviction that the acid test of the success of a civilized Government was the treatment it meted out to minorities. He had a very tender regard to them and he demonstrated it in his own life-time. He declared, “No civilized government can be run successfully without giving the minorities a complete sense of security and confidence. They must be made to feel that they have a hand in government and to do this they must have adequate representation in it. Pakistan will give this”. Replying to an address of welcome presented to him by Parsi Community Karachi, Quaid-i-Azam declared,
“I assure you that Pakistan means to stand by its off-repeated promises of according equal treatment to all its nationals irrespective of their caste and creed”.
The Quaid-i-Azam added,
“Pakistan which symbolizes the aspirations of a nation that found itself in a minority in the Indian sub-continent, cannot be unmindful of the minorities within its own borders”. He strongly opposed all ideas of retaliation or reprisals against innocent people. In the course of his speech at a public meeting at Lahore on 30th October, 1947, he exhorted his followers thus; “despite the treatment which is being meted out to the Muslim minorities in India, we must make it a matter of our prestige and honour to safeguard the lives of the minority communities and to create a sense of security among them. I would like to impress upon every Mussalman, who has at heart the welfare and the prosperity of Pakistan, to avoid retaliation and to exercise restraint, because retaliation and violation of law and order will ultimately result in weakening the very foundations of the edifice you have cherished all these years to erect”
In words which have become classic, the Quaid-i-Azam set out the causes and factors leading to the establishment of Pakistan and also explained its mission in the world. Speaking at the University ground, Lahore, on 30th October, 1947, he said, “The tenets of Islam enjoin on very Mussalman to give protection to his neighbors and to the minorities regardless of caste and creed… all I require of you now is that every one of us to whom this message reaches must vow to himself and be prepared to sacrifice his all, if necessary, in building up Pakistan as a bulwark of Islam and as one of the greatest nations whose ideal is peace within and peace without”.
The Quaid-i-Azam knew that the strongest motive which moved the Muslims to put forward the demand for Pakistan was to desire to have a state with its constitution based on Islamic principles, for this alone would enable them to mould their lives according to the teachings of Islam and demonstrate to the world that the way to peace, harmony and happiness was the Islamic way of life. The Quaid-i-Azam did not wear his religion on his shirt-sleeve, but he was a true Muslim. Like a true Muslim, the Quaid-i-Azam beautifully summed up the concept of Islam on the occasion of Milad-un-Nabi at Karachi on 25th January, 1948. He observed, “Islamic principles have no parallel. Today they are as applicable as they were 1300 years ago. Islam and its idealism has taught us democracy. It has taught us equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. There was nothing to fear not only for the Muslims but also for the non-Muslims. What reason could there be for anyone to fear from democracy, equality of man, freedom and the highest standard of integrity, justice and fairplay to everybody”. Quaid-i-Azam further said, “Let us make it (the future constitution of Pakistan). We shall make and show it to the world”.
The Quaid-i-Azam did not believe in dictating to anybody or authority with regard to the performance of the task with which they were charged. He could only express his views of the basic spirit and principles, which in his judgment, should form the future constitution of Pakistan. However, the Quaid-i-Azam envisaged a democratic constitution for Pakistan the ruling passion of his life was love of law and liberty. On innumerable occasions, before and after the establishment of Pakistan, he affirmed his faith in democracy, social justice, and the equality of man as taught by Islam. It will be sufficient to quote what he said on the subject in a broadcast talk to the people of United States of America in February, 1948. “The Constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan constituent assembly. I do not knew what ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be; but I am sure that it will be a democratic type, embodying the essential principles of Islam. Today they are as applicable in actual life as they were 1300 years ago. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan.
Consequently, the most important principle of the ideology of Pakistan as laid down by Quaid-i-Azam is that for Pakistan Islam is the basis of their’ secularism as well as ‘constitutionalism’.
It was the Quaid-i-Azam’s conviction that the Muslims had a complete and effective ideology of their own and could steer clear of the pitfalls of all extremist systems – capitalism on the one hand and communism on the other. He was fully aware that Islam has its own economic system. And he believed that if the Muslims of Pakistan correctly interpreted and exemplified by deeds rather than words, the teachings of Islam they could show to the world the much-needed path to peace, equality, justice and happiness. In fact, he considered this to be the main mission of Pakistan. However, Quaid-i-Azam was the first to proclaim “that Pakistan would be based on sure foundations of social justice and Islamic socialism which emphasize equality and brotherhood of man”
. Therefore, he had aspired to do away with the obvious manifestations of gross social inequality through making Pakistan a Welfare State. He was indeed aware that Islam regarded private ownership as a sacred trust. However, he was also conscious that according to Islam the social rank of an individual was not determined by the amount of wealth he owns, but by the kind of life he lives. Islam recognizes that worth of the individual, but at the same time, it disciplined him to give away his all to the service of God and man. It was precisely for this reason that the Quaid-i-Azam had rejected the Western theory and practice. In his speech at the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July, 1948, he emphasized that the adoption of western economic theory and practice will not help us in achieving our goal of creating a happy and contented people
. “We must work united to base the economy of Pakistan on Iqtisad i.e., moderation, the Islamic economic system, when on the occasion of the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan, he proclaimed: “We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concepts of equality of man and social justice. We will thereby by fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind”
. Just as the Quaid-i-Azam stressed in the early stages of the establishment of Pakistan that its genesis had its origin in an essentially ethical and spiritual concept, even so he has left us, as a testament, the sacred tasks of evolving in Pakistan a polity and an economy which, besides bringing us peace and happiness, would serve as a model to the world to the extent that we succeed in this experiment, to that extent we will be justifying the ideal for which Pakistan came into existence. We might close this appraisal of the Quaid-i-Azam’s vision of Pakistan with a passage from the first anniversary of independence which has now become classic; “Nature has given you everything: you have got unlimited resources. The foundations of your state have been laid, and it is now for you to build, and build as quickly as well as you can. So, go ahead and I wish you Good-speed. This was his last and most poignant message, his final clarion call to his people Pakistanis must pledge themselves to follow his teachings.
In reply to a question as to what would be the economic policy of Pakistan in an interview to the representative of Associated Press of America, he said: “You are asking me to interpret what the Government will do. But personally I believe that in these modern days essential key industries ought to be controlled and managed by the state. That applies also to certain public utilities. But what is a key industry and what is a utility service are matters for the lawmakers to say, not for me”.The views of Quaid-i-Azam are explained in the modern terminology of economics, he contemplated an order for Pakistan based on ‘mixed economy’ i.e., an economy which permits individual enterprise within specified limits and side by side implements the principle of state control. The Quaid-i-Azam, for instance, in his address to the general meeting of the Karachi Chamber of commerce on 27th April, 1948, enumerated that “The number of industries government have reserved for management by themselves consists of Arms and Munitions of War, generation of Hydol Power and manufacture of Railway Wagons, Telephone, Telegraph and wireless apparatus. All other industrial activity is left open to private enterprise which would be given every facility a Government can give for the establishment and development of industry”.
Similarly, there are his statements, for instance, his speech on the occasion of laying the foundation stone of the building of a textile mill on 26th September, 1947, in which he insisted on private sector to provide for proper residential accommodation and other amenities for the workers, for no industry can thrive without contented labour. In short the principle laid down by the Quaid-i-Azam was that Pakistan must achieve a balance between private enterprise and state control of industries and public utilities.
Infact the Quaid’s concept of Pakistan was that it would be an Islamic Welfare State where no one would be exploited. Also in the Islamic welfare State it is the duty of the State to see that every individual is at least provided with basic necessities of life. It is generally accepted that the fundamental rights of the citizens were guaranteed in written form for the first time under the constitution of the United States of America. But like the contemporary Muslim thinkers, Quaid-i-Azam believed that the fundamental, inalienable and residual rights of men were guaranteed in written form under the Quran long before the American Continent was discovered, nay, even long before the modern Western Civilization was born.
The Quaid-i-Azam often emphasized the ideal of the social justice in Pakistan. He deeply felt that in India the Muslims had been poor and backward. Both before and after the creation of Pakistan, he often spoke about the rights of the poor. In his speech at the opening ceremony of the State Bank, he said, “The economic system of the West has created almost insoluble problems for humanity…. It has failed to do justice between man and man…. This system cannot help us in achieving our goal of having a happy and contented people”. He added, “We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice”. Explaining equality of man in Islam, he said,
“One God and the equality of one-hood is one of the fundamental principles of Islam. In this religion there was no difference between man and man”.
The Quaid-i-Azam was, however, aware that the object of the economic teachings of Islam is to realize the ideas of equal distribution of wealth and a classless society through the politico-moral principles of equality, brotherhood, justice and evolution and not through class hatred, violence, destruction and revolution.
The Quaid-i-Azam envisaged Pakistan as a welfare State in the right Islamic spirit. Addressing constituent Assembly on 11th August 1947, he said, “If we want to make this great state of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor”. Again and again he expressed the belief that Pakistan would function in the Islamic spirit of equality, brotherhood and social justice. In his address to Pakistan Government officers at Karachi on 11th October, 1947, he said, “…The creation of a state of our own was means to an end and not an end in itself. The idea was that we should have a state in which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principle of Islamic social justice could find a free play”. On another occasion he said, “and show to the world that the state exists not for life but for good life”. His emphasis throughout was on social justice based on Islamic principles. He was all out for the supremacy of Islamic values and equality of men. In His address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir, on 21st February, 1948, he advised the people of Pakistan as thus: “Now you have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democratic, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil”. The main object of Pakistan to his mind was the urge to translate principles of Islamic social justice into concrete terms of social and economic reconstruction.
What the Quaid-i-Azam meant by social justice’ is evident from many of his speeches. These provide the clue to his conception of the social order which he visualized from Pakistan. In his historic speech at Chittagong on March 26, 1948, he spoke his mind on the subject and expressed in magnificent style his view of the social order in Pakistan. “You are only voicing my sentiments and the sentiments of millions of Mussalmans when you say that Pakistan should be based on sure foundations of social justice and Islamic Socialism which emphasizes equality and brotherhood of man. Similarly you are voicing my thoughts in asking and in aspiring for equal opportunities for all. These targets of progress are not controversial in Pakistan, for we demanded Pakistan, we struggled for it, we achieved it so that physically, as well as spiritually we feel free to conduct our affairs according to our traditions and genius. Brotherhood, equality and fraternity of man – these are all the basic points of our religion, culture and civilization. On many other occasions, the Quaid repeatedly said that Pakistan had been created for policy providing very appropriately social justice, equality, equal opportunities, and decent living for the poor people. Brotherhood and fraternity of mankind as the main objective of the State of Pakistan. He clearly visualized a state and a government which would apply the broad ethical principles of Islam to the polity, society and state craft of Pakistan in the real spirit, so that an ideal society functioning on a moral plane and an era of peace, harmony, progress and happiness my be ushered in.
The Quaid-i-Azam believed also in equal status for men and women. It was his cherished wish that Muslim women should work side by side with men. This was necessary for progress. He was happy that women had play their part in the struggle for Pakistan. In his farewell message to East Pakistan, he said, “women are the Prime architects of the character of the youth that constitutes its backbone…. I know that in the long struggle for the achievement of Pakistan, Muslim women have stood solidly behind their men”. He told his people, “I wish to impress on you that no nation can rise to the heights of glory unless your women are side by side with you. On another occasion he said, “You should take your women along with you as comrades in every sphere of life, avoiding the corrupt practices of western society”.
The Quaid-i-Azam was a great champion of the cause of peace and international amity for he considered these the essential pre-requisite of all constructive endeavor and progress. He declared time and against that Pakistan did not have evil designs against any of her neighbors but he told us that security of Pakistan was our primary duty. Addressing the establishment of H.M.P.S. ‘Dilawar’ on 23rd January, 1948, he advised, “While giving the fullest support to the principles of the United Nations Charter we cannot afford to neglect our defences…. The primary responsibility for the defence of our country will rest with us….the weak and the defenceless, in the imperfect world, invite aggression from others. The best way in which we can serve the cause of peace is by removing the temptation from the path of those who think that we are weak, and therefore, they can bully or attack us. That temptation can only be removed if we make ourselves so strong that no body dare to entertain any aggressive designs against us”. Quaid-i-Azam, however, was dedicated to the ideals of liberty and freedom. These ideals had precedence over everything else. Therfore he was a firm believer in strong defence which he regarded as a bulkwark against aggression and, therefore, a service to the cause of peace.
Quaid-i-Azam wanted Pakistan to achieve a place of honour in the world and play a good role in promoting peace and prosperity in the world. Therefore, with regard to the foreign policy the Quaid-i-Azam laid down certain laudable principles. In his broadcast talk to the people of United States of America in February 1948, he proclaimed “our forieign policy is one of the friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world… we believe in the principles of honesty and fairplay in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among all the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nation Charter”. However, Quaid-i-Azam’s views on international relations were based on the Islamic principles of honesty and fairplay. Naturally he took keen interest in other Muslim people’s cause of freedom ad independence.
How inspiring was the personality of our beloved Quaid who led the Muslim nation out of her perplexities and frustrations into the open air of freedom, by dint of his wonderful political sagacity, great skill and cogent reasoning? How remarkable was the great personality who, carved out a state by his honesty, integrity and perseverance, and for the next thirteen months laboured unceasingly for his country. How fascinating was the great personality whose sartorial taste was exquisite and whose magnetism attracted young and old, women and children rich and poor, friends and foes, and at whose bidding millions were ready to sacrifice their all. History shows that no individual enjoyed such immense popularity and confidence of an entire nation to such an extent. The Quaid-i-Azam had a great influence on his people as he was sincere, honest, incorruptible, trustworthy, righteous, truthful and kind. He was one of the most powerful men in history. The Muslims had the fullest confidence in the leadership of their Quaid as he was an embodiment of truthfulness, sincerity, keen intellect, intrepidity, absolute integrity, determination, courageousness, fair-mindedness, tolerance, preference for moral ends over mundane considerations, subordination of individual interest to collective good and firm adherence to principles. All the more, every fiber of his being was saturated with feeling for the Muslim nation.
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Al Jinnah, one of the most illustrious sons of the Subcontinent, the light of Asia, and the founder of Pakistan was a versatile genius. His contribution towards the freedom of India and special the creation of Pakistan will go in the annals of history as unparallel and unequal. His sharp intellect, piercing logic, clear vision, and the gift of the gab made him the most popular leader of the Muslims of the Subcontinent.
He emerged as leader of the Muslims when they were in the mid-way of their historical march towards the destination of freedom. Quaid-i-Azam, since the dawn of this century till 1948, lived in the thick of politics of the Subcontinent. He lived through many movements, campaigns and programmes which were launched for the liberation of India. He attended rather many times presided the meetings and conferences convened for the Hindu-Muslim unity and to solve their problems. His invaluable suggestions and advices were followed by many parties. He, as politician, suffered all that which is generally the lost of a politician, but never for a single moment at any place or occasion he came down fromhis status and standard as a leader to shut up his critics and rivals.
As a man his personality was fully developed. He was an embodiment of all positive virtues. In his long life, he never harboured any sort of ill and against anybody in his private life. He was a man above jealousies, grudges, selfishness, conspiracies and leg-pulling. He was fair, just honest and bold with all. Even the enemies of Quaid cannot say that he ever hurt the feeling of anybody in personal affairs. He was a man of strict principles, simple habits and high standard of living and life both. He had a tremendous charm and attraction for all. His immaculate dress, impeccable speech and simple diet impressed all. God had given him everything. He was rich, good-looking, intelligent and popular. His character was sterling and there never was any scandal in his life. He was kind, considerate, accommodating, true to his words, punctual of time, imaginative as well as a cool-headed logician. He never tolerated anything contrary to the principles of positive values and civilized life in his private and public life. His taste in everything was aristocratic and excellent. He lived in India and England, and moved in the society of the best of the people, but he never displayed any type of vanity, snobbery and pretension. He was physically frail but intellectually a giant and morally a superb being. No doubt that sometime he was silent, serious rather severe, but only when he was in contemplative and meditative moods. His disposition and temperament was that of a thinker. He was sensitive to the core of his heart, but at the same time he always respected the feelings of others.
As a citizens he was ideal. His civic sense was perfectly developed and he was fully aware of his place in the country and the society. He was respected rather loved by all in every community. He was broadminded, enlightened, humanitarian and a philanthropist and never entertained any sectarian, communal, provincial and anti-religious feelings against any community and person. He performed his duties as a conscious and conscientious citizen and fought for the rights of others. He did whatever he could do for cementing the ties of cordiality and friendship among various communities. During the time when the communal riots were the order of the day, he always condemned the communal feelings and the leader who fanned the flames of that hatred and bloodshed.
As a lawyer he had few equals and rivals in his field. He gradually acquired outstanding eminence in his profession. He started his career as a humble lawyer and for months together he was brief less. It adversely affected his finances but he never tried to get the cases through touts, agents or pimps. At the same time he never influenced the judges unfairly to get the judgment in his favour. He achieved success in his career and profession only through his handwork intelligence, integrity, honesty, and deep and vast knowledge of law. He was a self-made man. He very carefully kept up the standard of eminence and excellence in his profession throughout his life, which he had achieved in the prime of his youth.
The characteristic of Quaid-i-Azam as a man, citizen and lawyer culminated in Quaid the Parliamentarian. He was a member of the Indian Legislative Assembly for continually about forty years, and during this long period he employed his skill and knowledge to get democratic and benevolent laws for his countrymen. He vehemently, unreservedly and indiscriminately opposed all those Bills which were meant to curtail the liberty of Indians and oppress them. When the government of India tried to pass the most infamous Rawlatt Act to suppress the right of the freedom of speech, action and other rights of the Indian and specially that of the Indian Press, Quaid-i-Azam rendered his resignation under protest from the Indian Legislative Assembly.
Quaid never opposed anything simply for the sake of opposition. He advanced, sided and voted a Bill on principles and merits. His performance as a Parliamentarian was envied by others. He never violated the etiquettes, rules, regulations, procedural practices, customs, traditions, conventions, and other decencies of the House. During the course of his speeches, he was serious, sedate, rather sublime and the interrupters were silenced only by repartees. In spite of all attacks from the opposite side, he did not get sentimental and touchy, but tried his best, by means of reason and logic to make his point of view clear to others and it is why he always prevailed upon others. Whatever he felt, experienced, observed or thought as something right, legitimate and beneficial, he did so shirking in the least to speak it out very fearlessly before all. His righteousness, outspokenness, and determination was ideal. His opponents tried to win him over by flattery and bribe of very type but in vain. Similarly nothing could ever frighten him to speak the truth before the friends and foes alike. Even the most deadly enemies of Quaid have confessed that he was unpurchasable.
As Quaid had lived throughout his life among the masses therefore he had become a master of mass psychology. He always rightly felt the pulse of his people, and his age. He rightly diagnosed the ill and prescribed a right prescription for it. He would promptly and perfectly know as to what his people demanded or what the rival parties say or what would be the attitude of the ruling parting in a certain affair.
As a leader his greatest asset was his awareness of the past, consciousness of the present and an insight into the future. His deep and vast understanding and knowledge of human nature and character, enabled him to pick up the best of the colleagues to carry on the struggle of freedom of Pakistan.
Quaid displayed his moral greatness when he simply ignored his rivals and critics who unnecessarily attacked on his private life. For thirty years together Quaid worked with the Hindus for the political salvation of the Subcontinent, but the moment he realized that the Hindus, being proud of their numerical strength, had evil and sinister designs and intention against the Muslims and did not like to accommodate them honourably on equal footing, he immediately gave up their comradeship and decide to chalk out a new and separate destiny for his people.
By his life he proved that true statesmanship consists in gauging the real strength and potentialities of the people and achieving the best possible in the Bismarccian sense in the face of opposition. His firmness was unshakable evern during darkest days and with the clearest and vision of pragmatic approach he piloted Pakistan’s ship successfully through the most troubled waters. When the Quaid-i-Azam took over the reins of the young state as its first Governor-General, there were tremendous problems to be solved, thousands of arrangements to be made so that good government should be ensured, while an inevitable enemy was bent upon destroying the new state. All his colleagues and co-workers wondered what the Muslim Nations would do with a mere scroll of paper, while the strained relations with Bharat were constant anxiety. It was the courage, determination and will of the Quaid-i-Azam that turned that scroll of paper into a solid and prosperous nation well placed on its legs and looking to the future with confidence and zeal. He made his nation conscious of his destiny and strength. As the father of the nation he could advise, drive and persuade as no one else could. “He had contributed more than any other man to Pakistan.. His progressive and constructive contributions in all the field won him a highly esteemed place among the elder statesmen, not only of Asia but of the world. His remarkable personality has left to his followers and to the future statesmen of Pakistan an example of energetic devotion to duty and ideals which will inspire the people and the Government of Pakistan to continue play a constructive role in world affairs. Quaid-i-Azam was an honest man. Even at a very crucial time he remained flinchingly honest. His words should be a guide to us in our public life. “I prefer defeat to winning elections by adopting dishonest and corrupt methods”.
Reference may also be made to the judicial verdiction Jinnah when he appeared as a witness for the prosecution. In the trial of Rafiq Sabib who was charged and eventually found guilty of attempt to murder Mr. Jinnah, while summing up before jury, Mr. Justice Blagden said: “I must say that in all my experience I have never seen a more obviously witness of truth than Mr. Jinnah”. His politics was also free from deceit and falsehood. He was an embodiment of truthfulness and sincerity. These qualities, however, made him the most incorruptible politician of the sub-continent and remarkable personality of Pakistan.
He genuinely felt for humanity. He was a man of peace and abhorred violence and bloodshed. He was certainly moved by the sufferings of innocent humanity. He was deeply moved by the woes of the Muslims in East Punjab and Delhi. Once he told in a sorrowful voice: “I could never imagine that the Hindu could be so treacherous and depraved as to slaughter innocent men women and even children”. At such times tears seemed to be welling up in his eyes. For example, in January 1948, he went to see an encampment of Hindus who had stayed on in Pakistan. When he saw their misery he wept. However, in a garb his warp and woof reveal his humanity and gentleness. He was intensely human. But his humanity manifested itself in a sublimated form; it was different from emotional effervescence which is what most people understood it to mean. To superficial observers the Quaid-i-Azam might seem an aristocrat removed from the life and aspiration of the people. The fact was otherwise. He was of the people and for the people. He carried in his heart their cares, sorrows, hopes and longings. Between him and them there was a mystical link. That is why, however, his death was felt as a personal loss by every Pakistani.
The Quaid-i-Azam always had firm views and convictions. He was not only the Governor-General of the State but the Quaid-i-Azam of the nation and knew best what was best. He was always open to conviction and took pains to understand others’ point of views. He not only heard but gave due consideration to what tumble individuals had to submit. He was not a self-willed man. He would listen to what others had to say or suggest. He was ready to sit up all night to convince others, or to listen to counter their arguments. In the working committee he sometimes listened for hours without putting in a word himself. He wanted everyone to say something whenever an important problem was being discussed in the working committee. On one occasion, rather humorously, he said to one of the Punjab members in Urdu (won’t you too say something?). However, all his colleagues and coworkers and even acquaintances are unanimous in testifying that the Quaid-i-Azam was thoroughly democratic in outlook, temper and method that he never thought to impose his views on other, that he always patiently listened to the views and arguments of others and tried to convert them to his viewpoint through reasoning and argument and his disposition was marked by courtesy, consideration, suavity, dignity and graciousness.
The Quaid-i-Azam believed in convincing people through discussion and argument. He was not a demagogue or rabble rouser; he did not play on sentiments. He did not try to win people over by emotional appeal or cheap flattery. His appeal was always to the intellect and his reasoning was clear and logical. He intuitively knew the mind of the Muslim masses. He had the knack of putting across the mind and feeling of the Muslim people with clarity and force. He understood too well the mass psychology. He knew the public opinion; he also led the public opinion on right lines. By his unerring judgment he could guage public reactions to the most vital decisions that he had to take. There in lies his distinction as compared with other leaders. He was the man whose judgment and authority were never questioned lightly by his colleagues and co-workers. The Quaid’s personality had a wonderful quality of courage and strength of conviction and no power could make him change his conviction against his judgment.
Quaid-i-Azam was a man of great courage, determination and had the ability to meet the difficult situation. He successfully fought the man who had attacked hi m with a knife; he successfully fought those who attacked him in the press and on the public platform. When we consider the might and strength of the British and that of the Hindus, politically, financially and organizationally and their world-wide influence, we cannot help thinking that our Quaid-i-Azam was almost a superman in dealing with them. Was it easy to out-argue the Hindus? Was it easy to outmanoeuvre the seasoned British? He was able to do it all by his indomitable will and sterling character. Surrender also was a word, in addition to failure unknown to him.
The Quaid-i-Azam was ever willing to extend encouragement to hard workers. He himself worked day and night. Sleeping only four hours a day. The Quaid-i-Azam found time to give his attention to everything. He was present at all important ceremonies and gatherings. He made a complete tour of the country. He supervised the planning of the whole life of the nation. It was all too much for his frail body. Sickness and failing health did not deter the Quaid-i-Azam from attending to his duty. He was not the man to rest. He was ready and willing to spend the last ounce of his energy to consolidate the new state. He went on working to the very last and continued to deal with important state papers until his death. In fact, he was possessed of a strong will, determination, high sense of duty and sacrifice. During the last few months the strain had become unbearable and he moved from Karachi. He suffered from no chronic disease but was seventy-one and without adequate reserves of strength. His medical advisers had told him to ease up in work but he could not, and while life lasted, he went guiding his country. He had worked himself to death. He was consumed entirely by the passion for work and service. It was, indeed, the intensity of his passionate concern for the selfless service for his people which led him towards the evening of his life. Above all, the Quiad-i-Azam was the pride of those who work hard. Himself extremely hard-working he demanded hard work of people who came into contact with him. He liked and admired all hard working people. His favorite demand from the people of Pakistan was – to work, work and work. He also said,
“Make the greatest sacrifice and worked ceaselessly and selflessly in the service of our nation and make Pakistan one of the greatest nations of the world”.
Stanley Wolpert has presented tribute to Quaid-i-Azam in these words,
“Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three. Hailed as “Great Leader” (Quaid-i-Azam) of Pakistan and its first Governor-General, Jinnah virtually conjured that country into statehood by the force of his indomitable will. His place of primacy in Pakistan’s history looms like a lofty minaret.”
Reference: Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah as Governor-General of Pakistan
Author: Iqtidar Karamat Cheema
Publisher: Pakistan Study Centre, University of the Punjab, Lahore. 2006
Notes and References
- Ian Stephens, Pakistan old country and new nation, London 1967, p. 229.
- Saleem M.M. Qureshi, The Princely of Jinnah, Karachi 1998, p. 180.
- The Pakistan Times, March 23, 1974.
- Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Speeches as Governor-General of Pakistan 1947-48, Ferozsons pvt. Ltd. P. 22.
- The Pakistan Times, March 28, 1948.
- Prof. Muhammad Muzaffar Mirza, The Great Quaid, pp. 41-42.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Speeches & Writings of Mr. Jinnah, Vol. II, p. 50.
- M.A.H. Ispahani, Quaid-i-Azam as I knew him, Karachi, 1968, p. 274.
- Adopted from Nawa-i-Waqt, December 25, 1965.
- Riaz Ahmad, Pakistani Scholars on Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Islamabad 1999, p. 375.
- Dawn, January 26, 1948.
- Speeches as Governor-General, op.cit., p. 19.
- Ibid., p. 65.
- Waheed-uz-Zaman, The Quaid-i-Azam’s vision of Pakistan. The Pakistan Times August 14, 1979, p. III.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Quaid-i-Azam as seen by his contemporaries, Lahore, 1966, p. 93.
- Adopted from Nawa-i-Waqt, 25th December, 1965.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, op.cit., p. 23.
- Javid Iqbal, The Legacy of Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore, 1967, p. 19.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, op.cit., p. 40.
- The Pakistan Times, April 20, 1948.
- The Pakistan Times, March 28, 1948.
- Speeches as Governor-General, op.cit., PP. 122-123.
- R.M. White, The Great Leader Quaid-i-Azam, pp. 99-100.
- M. Rafique Afzal, Selected Speeches and Statements of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Lahore 1966, p. 457.
- Speeches as Governor-General, op.cit., PP. 121-122.
- Ibid., p.95.
- Sheila McDonough, Mohammad Ali Jinnah: Maker of Modern Pakistan, p. 98.
- The Eastern Times, March 24, 1948.
- The Pakistan Times, April 18, 1948.
- M. Rafique Afzal, op.cit., p. 453.
- Syed Qamar-ul-Ahsan, Birth of Pakistan – step by Step, Dhaka 1952, p. 166.
- Ibid. p. 70.
- The Dawn, September 11, 1949.
- The Pakistan Times, Marc 23, 1948.
- Civil and Military Gazattee, January 27, 1948.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Glimpses of Quaid-i-Azam, Karachi 1960, p. 88.
- Sheila McDonough, op.cit, p. 89.
- Javid Iqbal, op.cit., p. 4.
- Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, debates, Vol. 1. p.20, August 11, 1947.
- Ch. Mohammad Ali, The Emergence of Pakistan, London 1967, op.cit., p. 240.
- The Dawn, January 26, 1948.
- Sheila McDonough, op.cit., p. 94.
- G.W. Chaudhry, Constitutional development in Pakistan, p. 44-45.
- Pakistan, Reports of the Court of Enquiry, Punjab Disturbances of 1953, p. 203.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Glimpses of Quaid-i-Azam, p. 82.
- The Eastern Times, February 5, 1948.
- The Pakistan Times, February 4, 1948.
- Speeches as Governor-General, op.cit., p. 31.
- The Dawn, September 11, 1949.
- The Dawn, 26th January, 1948.
- The Eastern Times, January 27, 1948.
- Ch. Mohammad Ali, op.cit., p. 386.
- The Pakistan Times, March 28, 1948.
- The Morning News, September 11, 1969.
- Keith Callard, Pakistan A Political Study, London, 1957, p. 266.
- Sheila McDonough, op.cit., p. 96.
- The Pakistan Times, April 28, 1948.
- The Eastern Times, September 28, 1947.
- Dr. Riaz Ahmad, op.cit, p. 121.
- Prof. Muhammad Muzaffar Mirza, op.cit., p. 218.
- The Morning News, September 11, 1969.
- The Dawn, January 26, 1948.
- The Eastern Times, August 12, 1947.
- The Morning News, September 11, 1969.
- The Dawn, September 11, 1949.
- The Eastern Times, February 24, 1948.
- The Pakistan Times, March 28, 1948.
- The Eastern Times, March 31, 1948.
- Javed Iqbal, The Legacy of Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore, 1967, p. 3.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Quaid-i-Azam as seen by his Contemporaries, Lahore, 1966, p. 22.
- The Eastern Times, January 27, 1948.
- Ch. Mohammad Ali, op.cit., p. 378.
- Herberts Stark, Young Pakistan, London, 1951, p. 220.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Quaid-i-Azam as seen by His Contemporaries, Lahore, 1966, p. 242.
- Ibid, p. 155.
- Ibid., p. 43.
- Hector Bolitho, Jinnah the Creator of Pakistan, London 1964, p. 95.
- The Dawn, September 11, 1949.
- The Dawn, September 18, 1948.
- Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Quaid-i-Azam as seen by His Contemporaries, Lahore, 1966, p. 25.
- Herberts Stark, op.cit., p. 220.
- The Dawn, September 11, 1949.
- The Dawn, September 19, 1949.
- Speeches as Governor-General, op.cit., p. 34.
- Ibid., p. 33.
- Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan, Karachi 2003, p.vii.